Cassius Dionysius (Utica, Carthage, II C. BCE)

translation from Greek by Janus Cornarius - 1543, taken by the website: (transcription by Fernando Civardi)
translation from Latin: Andrea Gaddini
HAEC insunt in hoc libro; qui decimusseptimus est selectarum de agricultura praeceptionum, et continet descriptionem admissionis boum, et generationis eorundem, itemque educationis atque omnigenae curationis. This book, which is the seventeenth on the selected precepts about agricolture, includes the description of mating of cattle and of their reproduction, and also of their breeding and of cures of any kind.
Cap. I. De bobus
VACCAS triginta diebus antequam saliantur, cibo impleri non est permittendum, quanto enim magis gracilescent, tanto facilius semen concipient.
Chap. I. On cattle
Thirty days before the covering, cows must not be allowed to stuff themselves with food, in fact the more they lose weight, the easier they can conceive.
Cap. II. De bobus foeminis sive vaccis.
VACCAE eligendae sunt bene compactae, corporibus oblongae, istae magnitudinis, probe cornutae, latae frontis, nigris oculis, maxillis contractis, simas, non gibbosas, explicatas nares habentes, cervicem longam et crassam, pectorosae, labris nigris, profundis lateribus, ac bene costatis, lato tergo, habentes umbilicum magnum, caudam praelongam et ad calcanea pertingentem, multum pilosam, brachiis crassis, cruribus rectis, solidis, crassis magis quam longis, quae non mutuo affrictu atteruntur, pedibus qui inter eundum non nimium dilatantur, ungulis non valde disparatis unguibus perfectis et aequalibus, pelle ad tactum leni, et non ut lignum indurata. Probant a colore optimae, eas quae sunt flavescentes, eas quoque quae nigra crura habent, ut generosas probant. Bonum igitur est ut his omnibus a natura sit vacca ornata, sin minus, quam plurimis. At vero boves etiam vocem bubulci agnoscunt, et vocati nominibus impositis intelligunt, divertunt quoque eo quo iubentur, iussaque faciunt pro arbitrio sui praefecti.
Chap. II. On bovine females, also named cows.
Cows to be choosen must have a good build, an elongated and broad figure, right shaped horns, a wide forehead, black eyes, well-matching jaws, a snub, not humped nose, with widely open nostrils, long and thick neck, wide chest, black lips, deep thorax with well-developed ribs, wide rump, large venter, long tail reaching the hocks and with a much developed skirt, strong forelimbs, straight and firm legs, sturdy rather than long, not worning out for mutual rubbing, whose feet be not little distanced between them, hooves not much apart, with solid and level claws, with a skin smooth by touch, not hardened like wood. They say the best cows are the yellowish ones, and also those with black legs, deemed of good breed. It's therefore good that a cow be endowed by nature of all these traits, or at least of as many as possible. And certainly cattle also recognize the cattleman voice, and understand their name when they are called, and go where they are ordered to, and obey the will of their stockman.
Cap. III. De tauris.
TAURI duobus ante admissuram mensibus, non sunt dimittendi ad communia pascua cum vaccis, verum imprendi sunt herba ac foeno, et si pabulum hoc non sufficiat, cicere aut ervo, aut ordeo macerato. Minores annis duo{o}bus non sunt idonei admissurae, sed neque seniores duodecim. Idem etiam vaccis intelligendum est. Secernendi autem sunt a foeminis per duorum mensium spatium, inducendique in greges armentorum, ut ipsorum alacritatem non impediamus.
Chap. III. On bulls
In the two months before the mating, the bulls should not be sent at pasture with the cows, but instead they should be fed grass and hay, and if this is not enough, chickpeas or bitter vetch, or even macerated barley. Those younger than two years are not suitable for mating, but neither those over twelve years. The same must be said for cows. Moreover the bulls should be separated from females for a period of two months, and then be introduced in the herd, in order not to hinder their ardour.
Cap. IIII. Ut boves non fiant debiles.
ERVUM maceratum tritum singulis mensibus in potu exhibe. Plagam boum curabis, malva sylvestri trita ac illita.
Chap. IIII. So that the cattle don't turn weak
It must give them to drink macerated and ground bitter vetch every month. You will cure cattle wounds with wild mallow ground and smeared.
Cap. V. De ammissura.
TEMPUS admissurae idoneum est ver medium. Si vero vaccae tauros non admittunt, scillae medullam sive corculum, hoc est tenerrimas ipsius partes, et si ita dicere licet adipem, cum aqua terere oportet, et oblinere inde naturam vaccarum. Si vero tauri ad venerem sint seniores, cervi caudam urito et terito, ulnoque subactam pudendo ac testibus tauri illinito, et statim stimulabitur. Hoc non solum in tauris, sed etiam in aliis animalibus, et in hominibus eveniet. Stimulum autem libidinis dissolvet oleum illitum. Herba quoque polyspermos et polygonos appellata, animalia faciet foecundiora.
Chap. V. On mating
The right period for mating is by midspring. But if the cows do not agree the bull, it must grind with water the pith or heart of the squill, that is the tenderer part of this plant, the cream, if I'm allowed to say this, and then it must smear it on the cow's genitals. If instead the bulls are a little aged for mating, a deer tail burnt, ground and soaked into wine, must be smeared on the sex and the testicles of the bull, and quickly it will work as a stimulus. This not only works with the bulls, but also with the other animals, and men. Instead the stimulus of lust dissolves smearing oil. The grass called polispermia or polygon makes the animals fertile.
Cap. VI. De cognitione partus bovis qui nascetur.
QUI praenosse volunt an marem aut foeminam paritura sit bucula inita, hac observatione utantur, Si quidem enim in dextram partem taurus descenderit, partus masculus erit. Si in sinistram, foemina. Quod si tibi marem generari velis, tempore admissurae sinistrum testiculum admissario obligabis, Si foeminam, dextrum. Quidam vero naturale auxilium ad hanc rem moliuntur. Et si quidem marem sibi progenerari velint, borealis aeris constitutione existente initum appetere praeparant, Si contra foeminam, spirante austro.
Chap. VI. On the prediction of which calf will be born
Who wants to foretell if the inseminated heifer will calve a bull calf or a cow calf, must follow this rule: if after mounting the bull goes down by the right side, a bull calf will be born. If he goes down by the left side it will be a cow calf. And if you want to breed males, at the time of mating you have to tie the sire's left testicle, or the right one if you want a female. Actually somebody turns for this goal to the nature's aid, and if they want to breed males, they prepare the mating lust while north wind blows. If instead they want females they do it when the south wind blows.
Cap. VII. De Oestro, quod Myopa Graeci, Latini Tabanus appellant.
QUOD Myopes pungentes boves, ipsos ad insaniam adigunt, notum est. At vero non appropinquabunt ipsis, si quis lauri baccas tundat et in aqua coquat, conspergatque inde locum in quo {pascuntnr}<pascuntur>. Fugient enim Myopes ob naturalem quandam contrarietatem. Si vero iam percussi sint ab oestro boves, cerussam ex aqua ipsis oblinunt.
Chap. VII. The Gadfly, that the Greeks call Myopa, and the Latins Tabanus
As it is known, when gadflies sting cattle, they drive them nearly mad. But they neither get close if you will pound some laurel berries and cook them in water, scattering all on the place where livestock pastures. Indeed gadflies shun it for a certain natural loathing. If instead cattle have already been stung by the gadfly, it must smear some ceruse diluted with water.
Cap. VIII. De vitulorum nutritione.
LACTANTES boves cytiso aut medica nutriemus. Sic enim connutritae plus lactis habebunt. Caeterum vituli ipsi duorum annorum castrandi sunt. Nam serius castrari non est commodum. Vulnera ipsa cinere et argenti spuma inspergantur. Post triduum vero pice liquida et cinere modico oleo ammixto integantur.
Chap. VIII. On calves' feeding
Suckling cows should be fed laburnum or lucerne. In fact if you feed them this way they will give more milk. As for the rest, the calves must be castrated at the age of two years. Actually castrating them later is not advisable. The wounds of castration should be smeared with ash and litharge. After three days the wounds should be covered with liquid pitch and ash mixed to a small amount of oil.
Cap. IX. Ut boves laborantes non lassentur.
OLEO et terebinthina coctis cornua illinito.
Chap. IX. So that the working oxen don't get tired
It must grease the horns with cooked oil and turpentine.
Cap. X. A qua aetate incipienda admissura boum.
INIRE oportet non minorem duobus annis, ut triennes pariant. Melius autem pariunt quadrimae. Parit vacca ut plurimum ad annos usque decem. Tauri vero a trimatu vigorosi sunt tempus admissurae quadrupedum a delphini exortu, hoc est circa Iunii mensis principium, usque ad dies X:L: Gestat in utero vacca mensibus decem. Caeterum steriles et imbecilles, et aetate provectiores, ex armentorum grege eliciendae sunt. Inutilis est enim diligentia quae circa inutilia adhibetur.
Chap. X. From which age it must let the cattle start mating
Cows should not be mounted before the age of two years, so that they calve at three years, but if they do it at four years it's even better. A cow calves for several times, also till the tenth year. The bulls are ready to mount starting from the third year and the quadrupeds' mating season goes from the rising of Dolphin constellation, that is about at the beginning of June, until the fortieth day. A cow's pregnancy goes on for ten months. As for the rest, the cows which are sterile or weak, due to their old age, must be culled from the herd: in fact it's useless caring who is not employed in useful tasks.
Cap. XI: Ut boves a muscis non infestentur.
LAURI fructum tenuissime tritum et ex oleo coctum, bobus illinito, aut ex saliva propria ipsorum boum eos inungito. Tauri illito naribus rosaceo, tenebris offusis vertiginosi fiunt.
Chap. XI. So that the cattle are not infested by flies
Laurel fruits very finely ground and cooked in oil should be smeared on the ox, or you can grease them with their own saliva. The bulls whose nostrils are smeared with roses-oil, at nightfall turn dizzy.
Cap. {VII} <XII.>. Ut boves pingues facias.
BO{O}VES pingues facies, si redeuntibus a pascuis prima die brassicam concisam, et acri aceto maceratam obieceris deinde paleis excussas, et furfuribus triticeis mixtas, ad dies quinque. Sexta autem ordei moliti heminas quatuor, et sex sequentibus diebus paulatim, alimentum auxeris. Et hyeme quidem circa gallicinii horam nutries, deinde circa diluculum, quando et potum dabis. Reliquum alimenti circa vesperam, Aestate autem primum pabulum sub diluculum, secundum ad meridiem offerse, deinde potum exhibebis, et sic tertium pabulum circa horam nonam dabis, et rursus {potun} <potum> hyeme quidem aquam calidiorem, aestate autem tepidam. At vero ora ipsorum urina colluunt incumbentes pituitam extrahentes, et linguam a vermibus purgantes volsella exemptis. Pascuntur enim vermes in linguis ipsorum, quas deinde sale confricant. Sed et stramenti ipsorum curam habere oportet.
Chap. {VII} <XII.>. How to fatten the cattle
You'll fatten the cattle if, as they come back from pasture, the first day you feed them cabbage cutted to pieces, and macerated with sour vinegar and sifted straw, mixed with wheat bran, for five days. The sixth day give four heminae (1 liter) of milled barley, and for the following six days little by little you'll increase food. In winter you'll feed them at cockcrow, then round dawn, when you'll also water them. The rest of the fodder should be given round evening. In summer the first foraging is provided at dawn, the second one at noon, together with watering, and the third in the early afternoon; then in winter you will rather provide warm water, in summer instead the water should better be lukewarm. And while they are lying down, you should rinse their mouth with their same urine, in order to remove the phlegm, and clear their tongue from worms, drawing them out by tweezers. In fact on their tongue worms grow up, which should be rubbed with salt. But it must also take care of their litter.
Cap. XIII. De medela boum, et ut ne ossa devorent.
AD praesepia neque gallinae, neque sues accedant. {Utrorunque} <utrorumque> enim fimus si edatur, animal laedit. Non devorabit ossiculum bos, si lupi caudam in presepe suspenderis.
Chap. XIII. On a remedy so that cattle don't eat bones
Hens and pigs must not approach to the mangers. In fact the dung of both animals is bad for cattle's health if they eat them. Cattle will not eat little bones if you'll hang on the manger a wolf's tail.
Cap. XIIII. De ignoto morbo.
ANIMALIUM affectus et morbi fere omnes obscuri sunt. Quomodo enim quis discat? aut a quo percunctetur affectum qui est intra animal? Si igitur silphium tusum cum vino meraco nigro in nares infuderis, omnem ignotum morbum curabis. Democritus consulti incipiente vere, in potum boum ad quatuor et decem dies, scillae et rhamni radices iniicere. Si vero manifestum morbum aegrotet bos, sic medeberi. Salviam ex montana regione, et marrubium, in potu quem hausturi sunt macerato pari dierum numero, eoque exhibito curabuntur. Hoc autem non bobus solum, sed et alio pecori prodest. Quin et sal pabulo ammixtus valde iuvat. Optima vero et saluberrima est amurca cum aqu paulatim exhibita, prodest et medica herba.
Chap. XIIII. On the unknown disease
The diseases of the animals are nearly all obscure. How in fact could we know them? And where could we get informations on the ill inside the animal? If instead ground silphium with pure red wine is poured into the nostrils, every unknown disease will be cured. Democritus advises to give the cattle to drink squill and buckthorn roots at the beginning of spring, in the fourth and tenth day. If instead cattle are affected by a known disease, you will cure them this way. A mash of macerated mountain sage and horehound,given to drink for an even number of days will cure it. But this is good not only for cattle, but also for the other livestock. Also some salt added to the fodder is very good. And olive oil dregs is really good and beneficial, given little by little with water, and also lucerne is good.
Cap. XV. De capitis dolore.
DOLOREM capitis bovis prius conoscere oportet. Quando igitur dimissis auribus non comedit, capitis dolor adest. Lingua igitur ipsorum thymo trito cum vino, et alio, et sale tenui confricentur. Ptisana etiam cruda vino diluta prodest. Quin et lauri foliis manus plenae mensura acceptis, et in os immissis, aut mali punici putaminibus medeberis. Et myrrha magnitudine fabae in duabus vini heminis diluta, et per nares infusa curabis
Chap. XV. On headache
Headache must be first of all recognized. When therefore an ox keeps his ears down and doesn't eat, it means he got headache. Then it must rub his tongue with thyme ground with wine, garlic and table salt. A raw barley tisane diluted with wine is also good. Or even you'll cure it also taking a handful of laurel leaves, putting it into his mouth, or with pomegranate rind. And a piece of myrrh of the size of a broad bean melted in two heminae (0.5 liters) of wine, made swallow by the nostrils, will be good.
Cap. XVI. De profluvio alvi.
RHAMNI folia contusa, et bitumine intecta, edere dato. Alii mali punicae folia tusa, et polenta obducta, in cibo exhibent. Alii farinae frumenti sive tritici torrefacti heminas duas, cum aquae mensura dimidia subactas exhibent.
Chap. XVI. On diarrhoea
It must give crumbled buckthorn leaves to eat, covered with bitumen. Others give to eat crumbled pomegranate leaves and make drink barley porridge. Others give two heminae (0.5 liters) of toasted wheat flour or even wheat, crushed with half part of water.
Cap. XVII. De cura cruditatis.
CRUDITAS bovis cognoscitur ex eo quod non edit, et frequenter eructat, membraque cum quadam torsione et spiritus impressione movet. Curabimus igitur ipsum calidae aquae potu, et brassicae in aceto maceratae fasciculo ad edendum oblato. Alii brassicae partes teneriores fervefaciunt ac terunt cum {olao} <oleo>, et per cornu in os infundunt, et aviculis instratum calfacientes ad deambulationem {deducuut} <deducunt>. Hoc non bobus tantum, sed etiam omni alio pecori auxiliatur.
Alii oleae sylvestris folia aut aliarum arborum ramos teneros tundunt, et aquam affusum percolant, atque ita heminas sex inde per biduum infundunt.
Chap. XVII. On the cure of indigestion
The indigestion in cattle can be recognized since they don't eat, frequently belch and move their limbs with a certain twisting and being short of breath. Then we'll cure them giving to drink warm water and to eat a bunch of turnip tops macerated into vinegar. Others boil the cabbage's tenderer parts, crush them with oil and pour them in the mouth by means of a horn, then heat the ox by sheltering him with feathers and take him to walk. This remedy is good not only for cattle, but also for every other kind of livestock. Others crush wild olive tender leaves or tender twigs of other trees, put them in infusion into water and filter them, and so give them to drink six heminae of it (1.5 liters) for two days.
Cap. XVIII. De bupresti.
Quidam oleum bobus in nares infundunt. Alii caprifici grossos aqua macerant, ac dissolvunt, et similiter in nares infundunt.
Chap. XVIII. On jewel beetles (*)
Some pour oil in the nostrils of the ox. Others macerate into water some unripe wild figs, melt them, and pour them in the same way in the nostrils.
Cap. XIX. De tormine.
QUI torminibus vexatur bos, in uno loco non persistit, neque cibum attingit, sed suspirat ac gemit. Modicum igitur alimentum ipsi obiiciendum est, et caro circa ungues perpurgenda, ut sanguis inde promanet. Quidam circa caudam aperiunt, ut sanguis effluat, et panniculo obligant. Alii cepas et salem simul puniunt: et coacta in sedem quam penitissime protrudunt, et ad cursum cogunt. Alii nitrum tusum per os ingerunt.
Chap. XIX. On colic
The ox with a colic cannot be still in the same place, doesn't take food, sighs and groans. Some food must be anyway given to him, and it must let the flesh around the hooves discharge well, so that the blood can get out. Others lance the area around the tail, to make the blood get out, and then put a bandage on it. Others pound together onions and salt and, placing them under the tail, make them penetrate much in depth, and then force the ox to run. Others make ingest ground saltpetre.
Cap. XX. De febriente bove.
BOS febriens non admittit cibum, deorsum nutat, lacrymatur, sordes in oculis habet, circa oculos cavatur. Eum curant hoc modo. Ex opacis locis gramen capito, et lavato, eique edendum praebeto, aut vitis folia. In potu exhibeatur aqua quidem frigidissima, verum non sub dio, sed maxime loco umbroso, aures vero et nares spongia aqua imbuta detergeantur. Quidam cauterio faciem ipsius perurunt, et partes sub oculis itidem, easque spongia urina veteri calida imbuta bis per diem confricant, donec crustae excidant, et vulnera cicatricem recipiant. Lancinantur etiam aures ut sanguis effluat. Quidam pollentam ulno subigunt, et edendam praebent, alii muria dissolvunt, et aviculis concalefaciunt. Alii cytisum praebent cum vino. Id quod non bobus tantum, sed et alio pecori auxiliare est.
Chap. XX. On feverish cattle
The ox with the fever doesn't take food, hang his head down, waters, has rheumy and sunken eyes. The cure is this: let pluck grass in shady places, wash it and give it as a fodder, or instead feed them vine leaves. It must give them ice-cold water to drink, not under the sun, but rather in a shady place, and ears and nostrils must be cleaned with a sponge soaked into water. Somebody burns cauteries on the face or under the eyes, and rub them twice a day with a sponge soaked into warm stale urine, until the scabs fall and the wounds cicatrize. It must also prick the ears and make the blood get out. Some soak into wine a barley porridge, and give it to eat, other rinse with a brine and heat very much with feathers. Others give broom with wine to drink. This helps not only cattle, but also the rest of livestock.
Cap. XXI. De tussiente.
ORDEUM melitum maceratum, et palearum tenerrimas partes repurgatas, et ervi moliti heminas tres, in tres partes divisas, singulatim edendas praebeto. Quidam artemisiam herbam tritam ac dilutae aqua exprimunt, et ante pabulum ad dies VII. infundunt.
Chap. XXI. On coughing cattle
It must macerate barley with honey, and straw with the tenderer parts sorted out, and three heminae (0.750 liters) of milled bitter vetch, divided into three parts, are given to eat separately. Somebody squeezes some mugwort ground and diluted into water and scatter it on fodder after seven days.
Cap. XXII. De suppuratis.
SI ulcus suppuratum collegerit bos, urina bovis veteri calida ipsum purgare ac eluere oportet, et lanis extergere. Deinde emplastro ex sale tenui ac pice liquida imponere.
Chap. XXII. On suppuration
If cattle contracts a purulent plague, it must clear it rinsing it with warm stale urine of the same animal, and dry it with a woollen cloth. Then a poultice of table salt and liquid pitch.
Cap. XXIII. De claudicatione.
SI ob praefrigeratam partem bos claudicet, pedem lavare oportet, et affectam partem scalpello aperire et urina vetere fovere, deinde salem inspergere, et spongia aut panniculo extergere, postea adipem caprinum aut bubulum, ad ferrum calidum affrictum dolenti parti instillare. Si ex calcata spina aut eiusmodi quopiam claudicaverit, alia quidem similiter facienda sunt, Verum cera cum oleo vetere, et melle, ervique farina colliquata, ad ficus aut mala punica tusa ammixta imponatur, et panniculo integatur, obligeturque diligenter, ut nihil temere subeat, donec stare potuerit. Sic enim sanus evadet. Tertia autem die resolve, eademque adhibe. Si vero ob influentis materiae impetum claudicarti, pars ipsa cum oleo et passo cocto calfiat, deinde cruda ordacea farina calida imponatur. Quum vero matura facta fuerit et mollis, dividatur, ac eluatur, elotae autem parti divisae lilii folia aut scilla cum sale, aut polygonum aut marrubium tusum imponatur.
Chap. XXIII. On lameness
If for a frostbitten foot, an ox is lame, it must wash the part, cut the injured area with a small knife and dress with stale urine, then scatter with salt and cleanse with a sponge or a cloth, then make goat or bovine fat drip on the injured part rubbing it on a hot iron. If the ox is lame for stepping on a thorn or he got something similar thrust somewhere, other things must be made in a similar way. It must put on it wax, old oil, honey and melted bitter vetch flour, mixed with figs or mashed pomegranate, then it must cover with a cloth and wrap with care, so that nothing can casually get in, until the ox can stand. This way he'll get well. Then on the third day the bandage will be removed and put again turned. If instead the ox is lame by the pus flow coming out, it must heat the part with oil and cooked raisin wine, then on the legs warm barley flour must be put. When it's ripe and soft, it must remove it and rinse, then put on lily leaves washed and chopped up or squill with salt, bistort or ground horehound.
Cap. XXIIII. De scabie.
SCABIEM et eruptiones urina bubula veteri et butyro quidam oblinentes: Alii resinam, aut picem liquidam, cum vino cataplasmatis modo imponunt, et sic ipsos sanant.
Chap. XXIIII. On mange
On mange and skin eruption stale cattle urine and some butter must be smeared. Others make poultices with resin or liquid pitch and wine, and so they heal them.
Cap. XXV. De bile.
BOUM crura usque ad ungulam perurantur, et lavacro calido assidue calefiant, et aviculis instratis contegatur.
Chap. XXV. On jaundice
The cattle legs must be burnt until the hooves, frequently heated with a warm bath, and covered with a layer of feathers.
Cap. XXVI. De perfrigeratione.
VINUM nigrum excolatum ipsis infundatur.
Chap. XXVI. On cold
Make them drink filtered red wine.
Cap. XXVII. De vermibus.
Aqua frigida quidam irrorant ulcera, et sic enecant vermes.
Chap. XXVII. On worms
Somebody pour cold water on the sore, and this way kill the worms.
Cap. XXVIII. De appetente vitiosum pabulum.
PABULUM ex amurca sufficiente respergatur, et oleo ac rasina sive terebinthina, aequalibus portionibus permixtis, cornua ipsarum usque ad radicem illinito.
Chap. XXVIII. On how to make palatable a defective fodder
It must scatter the fodder with enough oil dregs, and grease the horns until the root with oil and resin or even turpentine, mixed in equal parts.
Cap. XXIX. De pediculosi.
BOVEM supinum deiicere ac persternere oportet et capite sursum spectante, linguam contemplari an bullas habeat. Has aut ferramentis acutis et ignitis inurere oportet, deinde sylvestris oleae foliis contusis cum sale, ulcera illinere, aut sale tenui cum oleo, aut butyro cum sale. Aut cucumeris sylvestris arisi radix contusa, simul cum ficibus ad edendum praebeatur. Aut polentae heminae duae, et farina frumenti torrefacti tantundem, vino madefacta exhibeantur.
Chap. XXIX. On the ox with worms
It must make the ox lie down and stretch out, and while his head is turned up, watch if there are blisters on his tongue. If that's the case it must burn them with sharp and red-hot tools, then smear the sores with wild olive trees ground with salt, or with table salt and oil, or even with butter and salt. Or else it must feed them wild dry ground cucumber roots with figs. Or else it give them two heminae (0.5 liters) of barley porridge, and the same amount of wheat flour, toasted and soaked into wine.
(*) Buprestis or Burstcow, Coleoptera (fam. Buprestidae, Leach 1815) insects feeding vegetables, but that, according some authors,
including Aristotle and Pliny, could be swallowed by the cattle at pasture, causing them inflammation and even the death.

I apologize for any error in the English translation: if you want to
communicate with me for corrections and/or comments,
write me

page created: August 30th 2010 and last updated: September 7th 2010