De Re Rustica - Liber VI
Latin text from: http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/columella/columella.rr8.shtml (translation: Andrea Gaddini)

[1] Quae in emendis bubus sequenda quae que vitanda sint, non ex facili dixerim, cum pecudes pro regionis caelique statu et habitum corporis et ingenium animi et pili colorem gerant. Aliae formae sunt Asiaticis, aliae Gallicis, Epiroticis aliae. Nec tantum diversitas provinciarum, sed ipsa quoque Italia partibus suis discrepat. Campania plerumque boves progenerat albos et exiles, labori tamen et culturae patrii soli non inhabiles. [1] It's not easy for me to say which principles should be followed and it's better to avoid purchasing cattle, since livestock shows, according to regions and climate, different body conformations, temperaments and coat colours. Asian cattle looks different from those of Gaul or Epirus. Moreover the difference is not only between the provinces, but the districts but regions differ even within Italy. Campania provides mainly white coated cattle, being slim but not unfit to labour and to tillage of their native land.
[2] Umbria vastos et albos; eademque robios, nec minus probabiles animis quam corporibus. Etruria et Latium compactos, sed ad opera fortes. Apenninus durissimos omnemque difficultatem tolerantes, nec ab aspectu decoros. Quae cum tam varia et diversa sint, tamen quaedam quasi communia et certa praecepta in emendis iuvencis arator sequi debet; eaque Mago Carthaginiensis ita prodidit, ut nos deinceps memorabimus. [2] Umbria gives very big white cattle, but also red ones of the same value as to nature and body structure. Etruria and Latium cattle are square-built but hardy for work. Apennine provides very strong cattle enduring every adversity, but wretched-looking. Though cattle are so different and various, a ploughman should follow, when purchasing calves, some almost common and fixed rules, which we are later on recalling, as the Carthaginian Mago handed them down to us.
[3] Parandi sunt boves novelli, quadrati, grandibus membris, cornibus proceris ac nigrantibus et robustis, fronte lata et crispa, hirtis auribus, oculis et labris nigris, naribus resimis patulisque, cervice longa et torosa, palearibus amplis et paene ad genua promissis, pectore magno, armis vastis, capaci et tamquam implente utero, lateribus porrectis, lumbis latis, dorso recto planoque vel etiam subsidente, clunibus rotundis, cruribus compactis ac rectis, sed brevioribus potius quam longis, nec genibus improbis, ungulis magnis, caudis longissimis et setosis, piloque corporis denso brevique, coloris robii vel fusci, tactu corporis mollissimo. [3] Young cattle to purchase should be sturdy, having big limbs, long horns, black and strong, a wide and curly forehead, hairy ears, black eyes and lips, wide and turned up nostrils, long and muscular neck, a broad dewlap almost reaching the knees, a broad chest, wide shoulders, a roomy belly looking like pregnant, ample flanks, broad loins, a straight and flat or slightly hollow back, rounded buttocks, compact and upright legs, better short than long, with faultless knees, large hooves, very long and silky tail, thick and short hair, reddish or black, very soft to the touch.

[1] Talis notae vitulos oportet, cum adhuc teneri sunt, consuescere manu tractari, ad praesepia religari, ut exiguus in domitura labor eorum et minus sit periculi. Verum nec ante tertium neque post quintum annum iuvencos domari placet, quoniam illa aetas adhuc tenera est, haec iam praedura. Eos autem, qui de grege feri comprehenduntur, sic subigi convenit. [1] It's better that calves with these qualities get accustomed since their early days to be handled and to be tied to the manger, so that taming labour be lesser and the danger be lower. Surely it's not convenient that steers are tamed before the third year or past the fifth year of age, because the former age is still premature and the latter is already hardened. Moreover the steers catched from the herd are better tamed this way.
[2] Primum omnium spatiosum stabulum praeparetur, ubi domitor facile versari, et unde degredi sine periculo possit. Ante stabulum nullae angustiae sint, sed aut campus aut via late patens, ut, cum producentur iuvenci, liberum habeant excursum, ne pavidi aut arboribus aut obiacenti cuilibet rei se implicent noxamque capiant. [2] First of all a roomy stable should be prepared, so the tamer could move round easily and go out without danger. In front of the stable there must be no obstacles, but a field or a widely accessible way, because when the steers are taken out, they must be free to run without getting themselves for fear into trees or whatever object they might find before, getting themselves wounds.
[3] In stabulo sint ampla praesepia, supraque transversi asseres in modum iugorum a terra septem pedibus elati configantur, ad quos religari possint iuvenci. Diem deinde, quo domituram auspiceris, liberum a tempestatibus et a religionibus matutinum eligito; cannabinisque funibus cornua iuvencorum ligato. [3] In the stable there should be broad mangers and above them should be fixed cross posts, placed like yokes, seven feet tall from the ground, to which steers could be tied. Then chose the morning you're beginning the taming to be propitious as to weather and to religious rites, and tie the steers' horns with hemp ropes.
[4] Sed laquei, quibus capulabuntur, lanatis pellibus involuti sint, ne tenerae frontes sub cornua laedantur. Cum deinde buculos comprehenderis, perducito ad stabulum, et ad stipites religato ita ut exiguum laxamenti habeant, distentque inter se aliquanto spatio, ne in colluctatione alter alteri noceat. Si nimis asperi erunt, patere unum diem noctemque desaeviant. Simul atque iras contuderint, mane producantur, ita ut a tergo complures, qui sequuntur, retinaculis eos contineant, et unus cum clava salignea procedens modicis ictibus subinde impetus eorum coerceat. [4] But the halters you use to tie the steers must be wrapped up with wooly leather, so their tender foreheads under the horns aren't scraped off. When, once you tied the steers you lead them to the stable, fasten them to the posts so that they haven't too much play and there's enough space between them, so they don't hurt one another fighting. If they are too much wild, let them free to calm down one day and one night long, and as soon as their wrath is assuaged, next morning lead them outside, with many people behind to follow and to hold them pulling bridles, and one with a willow-wood club preceding and seldom checking its impetuosity by taps.
[5] Sin autem placidi et quieti boves erunt, vel eodem die, quo alligaveris, ante vesperum licebit producere, et docere per mille passus composite ac sine pavore ambulare; cum domum perduxeris, arcte ad stipites religato, ita ne capite moveri possint. Tum demum ad alligatos boves neque a posteriore parte neque a latere, sed adversus, placide et cum quadam vocis adulatione venito, ut accedentem consuescant aspicere. Deinde nares perfricato, ut hominem discant odorari. [5] If instead the oxen are meek and quiet, even in the same day you tied them first, before night you can take them out and teach them to walk quietly and fearless for one thousand steps; then as you take them back into the stable, bind them fast to the posts, so that they can't move their head; then finally you'll advance towards them, not from behind nor from the side, but from the front, quietly and with a somehow flattening voice, so they get accustomed to see somebody approaching. Then rub their nostrils so they'll learn to smell the man.
[6] Mox etiam convenit tota tergora et tractare et respergere mero, quo familiariores bubulco fiant; ventri quoque et sub femina manum subicere, ne ad eiusmodi tactum postmodum pavescant, et ut ricini qui plerumque feminibus inhaerent, eximantur. Idque cum fit, a latere domitor stare debet, ne calce contingi possit. [6] Then it's convenient to rub and spray their backs with wine, to make them accustomed to the ploughman and it's better you put your hand under their bellies and thighs, both because they aren't frightened when later touched this way, both to take off the ticks, which cling mainly to thighs. When the tamer makes this must stay beside the ox, so he cannot be reached by a kick.
[7] Post haec diductis malis educito linguam, totumque eorum palatum sale defricato, libralesque offas in praesulsae adipis liquamine tinctas in gulam demittito, ac vini singulos sextarios per cornu faucibus infundito; nam per haec blandimenta triduo fere mansuescunt, iugumque quarto die accipiunt, cui ramus illigatus temonis vice traicitur; interdum et pondus aliquod iniungitur, ut maiore nisu laboris exploretur patientia. [7] Once done this, after having opened wide their jaws, pull their tongue out and rub all the mouth and palate with salt, then thrust in their throat one libra mouthfuls of very salty fat and pour inside them with a horn a sextarius (0.5 l) of wine each. Since with this mild deal in about three days they'll be tame the fourth day they'll accept the yoke, in which a tree branch will be fixed, making it pass through instead of the shaft; sometimes a weight is added, so a harder effort puts to the test the endurance against labour of the ox.
[8] Post eiusmodi experimenta vacuo plostro subiungendi et paulatim longius cum oneribus producendi sunt. Sic perdomiti mox ad aratrum instituantur, sed in subacto agro, ne statim difficultatem operis reformident neve adhuc tenera colla dura proscissione terrae contundant. Quemadmodum autem bubulcus in arando bovem instituat, primo praecepi volumine. Curandum ne in domitura bos calce aut cornu quemquam contingat. Nam nisi haec caveantur, numquam eiusmodi vitia quamvis subacto eximi poterunt. [8] After the trials made this way it must yoke them to an empty cart and step by step they must go out pulling weights for longer times. Once they are tamed so,it must accustom them to the plough, but on an already ploughed field, so that they don't get at once scared by the difficulties of the work and don't get their tender necks hurted in the hard land ploughing. In the first volume I already taught how the ploughman must train the ox to the ploughing. It must take care that during the taming nobody be reached by a kick or a butt: in fact if you don't pay attention to it, you'll never amend this vice, even in subdued animals.
[9] Verum ista sic agenda praecipimus, si veteranum pecus non aderit. Nam si aderit, expeditior tutiorque ratio domandi est, quam nos in nostris agris sequimur. Nam ubi plostro aut aratro iuvencum consuescimus, ex domitis bubus valentissimum eundemque placidissimo cum indomito iungimus. Is et procurrentem retrahit et cunctantem producit. [9] Indeed these things we taught must not be really done if you have tamed oxen: in this case the taming proceeding is faster and safer, as we do in our estates. In fact when we accustom an ox to the cart or the plough, we yoke the sturdiest and quietest of the tame oxen with a still untamed one, so that if the latter goes too fast, the former restrains it and if it loiters, the other pulls ahead.
[10] Si vero non pigeat iugum fabricare, quo tres iungantur, hac machinatione consequemur, ut etiam contumaces boves gravissima opera non recusent. Nam ubi piger iuvencus medius inter duos veteranos iungitur, aratroque iniuncto terram moliri cogitur, nulla est imperium respuendi facultas. Sive enim efferatus prosilit, duorum arbitrio inhibetur; seu consistit, duobus gradientibus etiam invitus obsequitur; seu conatur decumbere, a valentioribus sublevatus trahitur; propter quae undique necessitate contumaciam deponit, et ad patientiam laboris paucissimis verberibus perducitur. [10] Then, if you don't mind building a yoke to which three animals could be fastened, with this device you could achieve that neither the unruly ox can reject the heaviest work: indeed when a lazy ox is tied between two veterans, as the plough is driven into the soft soil, it is constrained and have no chance to refuse the orders. If then it rushes ahead raging, it's stopped by the will of the other two, if instead it stops must give up, even unwillingly, to the advancing two, hoisted and dragged by those stronger ones, therefore necessarily it renounces completely to its obstinacy and is induced to endure work with very few lashes.
[11] Est etiam post domituram mollioris generis bos, qui decumbit in sulco; eum non saevitia, sed ratione censeo emendandum. Nam qui stimulis aut ignibus aliisque tormentis id vitium eximi melius iudicant, verae rationis ignari sunt, quoniam pervicax contumacia plerumque saevientem fatigat. Propter quod utilius est citra corporis vexationem fame potius et siti cubitorem bovem emendare. Nam eum vehementius afficiunt naturalia desideria quam plagae. [11] There is also a kind of weaker oxen which, even after the taming, lie down in the furrow; I think they must be amended not by roughness, but by care; indeed those who judge it's better to correct this vice by the goad or fire or other pains don't know the right way, since the obstinate stubbornness generally bores the raging trainer. Therefore it's better to amend the oxen used to lay down by means of hunger and thirst, rather than with physical abuses.
[12] Itaque si bos decubuit, utilissimum est pedes eius sic vinculis obligari, ne aut insistere aut progredi aut pasci possit. Quo facto inedia et siti compulsus deponit ignaviam; quae tamen rarissima est in pecore vernaculo; longeque omnis bos indigena melior est quam peregrinus. Nam neque aquae nec pabuli nec caeli mutatione tentatur, neque infestatur condicione regionis, sicut ille, qui ex planis et campestribus locis in montana et aspera perductus est, vel ex montanis in campestria. [12] Therefore, if an ox lies down, it's more useful to tie its legs with belts, so that it couldn't stand up or walk, and then pasture; this way, driven by hunger and thirst, it will give up its indolence. Nevertheless it seldom happens to farm-born livestock, and all native oxen are far better than foreign ones: indeed they're not annoyed by changes of water, food or climate, and neither disturbed by the conformation of the region, like those which from level and meadowy areas are taken in harsh mountain places, or from the mountain are taken into flat lands.
[13] Itaque etiam, cum cogimur ex longinquo boves arcessere, curandum est, ut in similia patriis locis traducantur. Item custodiendum est, ne in comparatione vel statura vel viribus impar cum valentiore iungatur. Nam utraque res inferiori celeriter affert exitium. [13] Then, if we are forced to get our oxen from afar, we must pay attention they are introduced in lands close to their native ones. Moreover it must take care not to yoke together a weaker ox with a stronger one by frame, height or strength: indeed these things take rapidly the weaker to the ruin.
[14] Mores huius pecudis probabiles habentur, qui sunt propiores placidis quam concitatis, sed non inertes; qui sunt verentes plagarum et acclamationum, sed fiducia virium nec auditu nec visu pavidi, nec ad ingredienda flumina aut pontes formidolosi; multi cibi [edaces] verum in eo conficiendo lenti. Nam hi melius concoquunt, ideoque robora corporum citra maciem conservant, qui ex commodo, quam qui festinanter mandunt. [14] It's deemed the most appreciated qualities of this livestock are being quiet rather than raging, but yet not numb, obeying to beating and yells, but trusting in their own strenght and not fearing sounds and sights and not afraid to cross rivers or bridges, being hungry of several foods, but yet slow in consuming them: indeed those who chew in the proper time digest better and therefore keep better their body energy, without slimming, compared to the hurrying ones.
[15] Sed tam vitium est bubulci pinguem quam exilem bovem reddere; habilis enim et modica corporatura pecoris operarii debet esse, nervisque et musculis robusta, non adipibus obesa, ut nec sui tergoris mole nec labore operis degravetur. Sed quoniam quae sequenda sunt in emendis domandisque bubus tradidimus, tutelam eorum praecipiemus. [15] However for a ploughman making oxen slim or fatten is a fault; indeed body frame of draught livestock must be agile and measured, strong as to tendons and muscles, not too fat, so that they are not loaded both by their own hindquarters' bulk and by the work's labour. After having exposed the rules to follow when buying or taming oxen, now we'll be teaching how to tend them.

[1] Boves calore sub divo, frigoribus intra tectum manere oportet. Itaque hibernae stabulationi eorum praeparanda sunt stramenta, quae mense Augusto intra dies triginta sublatae messis praecisa in acervum exstrui debent. Horum desectio cum pecori tum agro est utilis: liberantur arva sentibus, qui aestivo tempore per Caniculae ortum recisi plerumque radicitus intereunt, et stramenta pecori subiecta plurimum stercoris efficiunt. Haec cum ita curaverimus, tum et omne genus pabuli praeparabimus, dabimusque operam, ne penuria cibi maciescat pecus. [1] It must keep oxen under the sky when it's warm, and under shelter when it's cold. Therefore it must get straw ready for their winter stalling, piling it up in heaps, within thirty days from harvest. The straw reaping is useful both for livestock and land: the fields are rid of brambles, which generally die from their roots when cut in summertime, when Sirius rises, and the straw used as a litter for livestock provides plenty of manure. Once we took care of all these things, then we'll get ready any kind of fodder and engage so that the scarcity of food doesn't make livestock slim.
[2] Boves autem recte pascendi non una ratio est. Nam si ubertas regionis viride pabulum subministrat, nemo dubitat quin id genus cibi ceteris praeponendum sit; quod tamen nisi riguis aut roscidis locis non contingit. Itaque in iis ipsis vel maximum commodum est, quod sufficit una opera duobus iugis, quae eodem die alterna temporum vice vel arant vel pascuntur. [2] There is not just one way to make cattle graze well. In fact if the fertility of the region supplies green forage, nobody doubts that such type of food should be preferred, however you find it just in humid or well-watered places. And therefore in such places there is also a great advantage, because a day of work is enough for two pairs of oxen, which alternatively plow or graze.
[3] Siccioribus agris ad praesepia boves alendi sunt, quibus pro condicione regionum cibi praebentur; eosque nemo dubitat, quin optimi sint vicia in fascem ligata et cicercula itemque pratense foenum. Minus commode tuemur armentum paleis, quae ubique et quibusdam regionibus solae praesidio sunt. Eae probantur maxime ex milio, tum ex ordeo, mox etiam ex tritico. Sed iumentis iusta operum reddentibus ordeum praeter has praebetur. [3] In the droughty zones cattle should be fed at the manger, and according to the traits of the place, it will be supplied foods, of which nobody doubts that the best ones are vetch tied in bundles and chickling, likewise meadow hay. With the straw we will feed the cattle less well, that is found everywhere and in some regions is the only aid. Between the straws the best ones are that of millet, then of barley, and then of wheat, but the oxen who give work it must give also some barley corn, in addition to the straw.
[4] Bubus autem pro temporibus anni pabula dispensantur. Ianuario mense [singulis] fresi et aqua macerati ervi quaternos sextarios mistos paleis dare convenit, vel lupini macerati modios, vel cicerculae maceratae semodios, et super haec affatim paleas. Licet etiam, si sit leguminum inopia, et eluta et siccata vinacia, quae de lora eximuntur, cum paleis miscere. [4] Moreover feed the oxen with forage according to the seasons of the year. In the month of January give every head 4 sextaries (8.7 kg) of bitter vetch milled and macerated in water mixed to straw, or a modius (8.7 kg) of macerated lupins or a half modius (4.3 kg) of macerated chickling and, beyond to all this, plenty of straw. It is also possible, if there is lack of Leguminosae, to add to the straw some washed and dried wine marc, extracted from thin wine.
[5] Nec dubium [est] quin ea longe melius cum suis folliculis, ante quam eluantur, praeberi possint. Nam et cibi et vini vires habent, nitidumque et hilare et corpulentum pecus faciunt. Si grano abstinemus, frondis aridae corbis pabulatorius modiorum viginti sufficit, vel foeni pondo triginta, vel sine modo viridis laurea et ilignea frondes. Et his, si regionis copia permittat, glans adicitur; quae nisi ad satietatem detur, scabiem parit. Potest etiam si proventus vilitatem facit, semodius fabae fresae praeberi. Mense Februario plerumque eadem sunt cibaria. [5] There is no doubt that marc is much better if given with all its peels, before washing it, this way it keeps all the energy both of the wine and of the food and makes cattle glossy, in a good humor and well fed. in a good humor and well fed. If we want to save wheat, a basket of forage of twenty modii (175 kg) of dried foliage is enough or even thirty pounds of hay or laurel and holm-oak leaves without limits, and to all this, if the fertility of the region allows it, we can add acorns, that if are not given to satiety, makes the scabies come. We also can, if the abundance generates a good price, give an half modium (4.3 kg) of broad-beans. In the month of February the forages are more or less the same ones.
[6] Martio et Aprili debet ad foeni pondus adici, quia terra proscinditur; sat autem erit pondo quadragena singulis dari. Ab Idibus Aprilis usque in Idus Iunias viride pabulum recte secatur; potest etiam in Kal. iulias frigidioribus locis idem praestari; a quo tempore in Kal. Novembres tota aestate et deinde autumno satientur fronde; quae tamen ante est utilis, quam cum maturuerit vel imbribus vel assiduis roribus; probaturque maxime ulmea, post fraxinea, et ab hac populnea. Ultimae sunt ilignea et quernea et laurea; sed eae post aestatem necessariae deficientibus ceteris. [6] In March and April it must increase the weight of the hay, because we plough the soil, but forty pounds (12 kg) more per head will be enough. From half April to half June it will be better to cut the green forage down; in the colder places we can also feed the cattle with it until the beginning of July. From this season until the beginning of November, along all the summer and then in the autumn, they should be statisfied by leaves, which anyway are not useful before they ripen by the rain or the frequent dews; the elm tree leaves are considered the most suitable, followed by the ash-tree leaves and then the poplar leaves. The last ones are those of ilex, oak and laurel, which are necessary after the summer, when there's lack of the others.
[7] Possunt etiam folia ficulnea probe dari, si sit eorum copia, aut stringere arbores expediat. Ilignea tamen [vel] melior est quernea, sed eius generis, quod spinas non habet. Nam id quoque, uti iuniperus, respuitur a pecore propter aculeos. Novembri mense ac Decembri per sementem quantum appetit bos, tantum praebendum est; plerumque tamen sufficiunt singulis modii glandis et paleae ad satietatem datae, vel lupini macerati modii, vel ervi aqua conspersi, sextarii VII permisti paleis, vel cicerculae similiter conspersae sextarii XII misti paleis, vel singuli modii vinaceorum, si iis, ut supra dixi, large paleae adiciantur; vel si nihil horum est, per se foeni pondo quadraginta. [7] Fig leaves can also be usefully given, if there's plenty of them or if it's needed to prune the trees. Ilex leaves are better than oak ones, if they belong to the spineless kind, or they will be refused by the livestock, just like the juniper. In the months of November and December, when it must sow, it's better to supply the ox all the food he asks for; generally a modius (8.7 kg) of acorns is enough, with straw given at pleasure, or even a modius of macerated lupins, or seven sextaries (15 kg) of bitter vetch sprinkled with water and mixed with straw, or twelve sextaries (26 kg) of in like manner sprinkled chickling, mixed with straw, or a single modius of wine marc if, as I said before, plenty of straw is added; if instead noone of these foods are available, just give forty pounds of hay.

[1] Sed non proderit cibis satiari pecora, nisi omnis adhibeatur diligentia, ut salubri sint corpore, viresque conservent; quae utraque custodiuntur large dato per triduum medicamento, quod componitur pari pondere triti lupini, cupressique et cum aqua nocte una sub divo habetur; idque quater anno fieri debet ultimis temporibus veris, aestatis autumni, hiemis. [1] But satiating the cattle will not be useful, if you don't pay all your attention to keep their bodies healthy and to preserve their strength, both these goals are easily achieved giving them for three days a medicine, composed by equal parts in weight of ground lupin and cypress berries, soaked one night into water, to the open air; this medicine must be given four times a year, at the end of the spring, summer, autumn and winter.
[2] Saepe etiam languor et nausea discutitur, si integrum gallinaceum crudum ovum ieiuni faucibus inseras, ac postero die spicas ulpici vel alii cum vino conteras, et in naribus infundas; neque haec tantum remedia salubritatem faciunt. Multi et largo sale miscent pabula; quidam marrubium deterunt cum oleo et vino; quidam porri fibras, alii grana thuris, alii sabinam herbam rutamque cum mero diluunt. Eaque medicamenta potanda praebent. [2] Often then you will be able to fight nausea and fatigue if you will put in mouth of the fasted animals a raw whole chicken egg, and if the day after you'll mince stems of chive or cloves of garlic into wine, and you'll pour it into the nostrils; But not only these remedies are good for the health: many people add plenty of salt to the food, somebody mince horehound with wine and oil; others pour leek stems or incense grains or savin or rue into straight wine, and give these medicines to drink to the cattle.
[3] Multi caulibus vitis albae et valvulis ervi bubus medentur; nonnulli pellem serpentis obtritam cum vino miscent. Est etiam remedio cum dulci vino tritum serpyllum, et concisa et in aqua macerata scilla. Quae omnes praedictae potiones trium heminarum singulis diebus per triduum datae alvum purgant, depulsisque vitiis recreant vires. [3] Many treat the oxen with stems of old-man's beard and hulls of bitter vetch; some add to the wine a minced snake skin. Also the sweet wine with minced wild thyme is a remedy, likewise also the squill chipped and macerated into water. All the potions above described, must be given for three days, in the amount of three heminae (0,825 l) a day, they purge the bowels and give again strength, sending the illness away.
[4] Maxime tamen habetur salutaris amurca, si tantundem aquae misceas, et ea pecus insuescas; quae protinus dari non potest, sed primo cibi asperguntur, deinde exigua portione medicatur aqua, mox pari mensura mista datur ad saturitatem. [4] But olive oil dregs are deemed as very beneficial, if mixed in equal parts with water, and if cattle becomes accustomed to it, inasmuch it cannot be given at once, but must be shed before on the fodder, then added in small doses to the water, finally added to an equal amount of water and given at pleasure to the cattle.

[1] Nullo autem tempore et minime aestate utile est boves in cursum concitari; nam ea res aut cit alvum, aut movet febrem. Cavendum quoque est, ne ad praesepia sus aut gallina perrepat. Nam hoc quod decidit, immistum pabulo, bubus affert necem; et id praecipue, quod egerit sus aegra, pestilentiam facere valet. Quae cum in gregem incidit, confestim mutandus est caeli status, et in plures partes distributo pecore longinquae regiones petendae sunt, atque ita segregandi a sanis morbidi, ne quis interveniat, qui contagione ceteros labefaciat. [1] In no season, and so much the less in summer, it must spur on the oxen to run, since this moves the bowels and brings the fever. It must also take care that pigs or hens do not infiltrate themselves in the mangers, since the faeces that drop on the fodder takes the oxen to death; and in particular what is dropped by a sick sow is enough to infect. When this happens in the herd, it must quickly go under new skies and towards far fields, where the cattle must be distributed in several groups, and therefore it must separate the sick animals from the healthy ones, so that it doesn't happen that they can infect the others.
[2] Itaque cum ablegabuntur, in ea loca perducendi sunt, quibus nullum impascitur pecus, ne adventu suo etiam illi tabem afferant. Evincendi sunt autem quamvis pestiferi morbi, et exquisitis remediis propulsandi. Tunc panacis et eryngii radices foeniculi seminibus miscendae, et cum fricti ac moliti tritici farina candenti aqua conspergendae, eoque medicamine salivandum aegrotum pecus. [2] Therefore, when the animals will be moved, it should lead them in zones in which other cattle does not graze, in order to avoid that with their arrival they carry the disease also to the others. But however awful can be the diseases, it must defeat them and keep them away with proved remedies. Then panacea and sea-holly roots must be mixed with fennel seeds and added to toasted and milled wheat flour, then sprinkled with hot water, and the sick animals must be cured provoking the salivation with this medicine.
[3] Tunc paribus casiae myrrhaeque et thuris ponderibus, ac tantumdem sanguinis marinae testudinis miscetur potio cum vini veteris sextariis tribus, et ita per nares infunditur. Sed ipsum medicamentum ponderis sescunciae divisum, portione aequa per triduum cum vino dedisse sat erit. Praesens etiam remedium cognovimus radiculae, quam pastores consiliginem vocant. Ea in Marsis montibus plurima nascitur, omnique pecori maxime est salutaris. Laeva manu effoditur ante solis ortum. Sic enim lecta maiorem vim creditur habere. [3] Then it must prepare a potion with cassia, myrrh and incense in equal parts in weight, Then it must prepare a potion with cassia, myrrh and incense in equal parts in weight and as many of turtle blood and add it to three sextaries (1,6 l) of old wine and it must pour it in the nostrils. But it will be enough to give the same medicine, divided in parts of an ounce and half (40 g), in equal amounts for three days. I know also an effective remedy made with a root of an hellebore, that the shepherds call consiligo. It grows very thick on the mounts of the Marsica nd it's greatly wholesome for all the livestock. It must uproot it with the left hand before the sun rises, because it's believed that picked this way it has more force.
[4] Usus eius traditur talis. Aenea fibula pars auriculae latissima circumscribitur, ita ut manante sanguine tamquam O litterae ductus appareat orbiculus. Hoc et intrinsecus et ex superiore parte auriculae cum factum est, media pars descripti orbiculi eadem fibula transuitur, et facto foramini praedicta radicula inseritur; quam cum recens plaga comprehendit, ita continet, ut elabi non possit; in eam deinde auriculam omnis vis morbi pestilensque virus elicitur, donec pars, quae fibula circumscripta est, demortua excidit, et minimae partis iactura caput conservatur. Cornelius Celsus etiam visci folia cum vino trita per nares infundere iubet. Haec facienda, si gregatim pecora laborant; illa deinceps, si singula. [4] Somebody recommends to use the remedy this way: trace a circle with a bronze brooch on the wider part of the ear, so that the blood that drips traces a round sign similar to an O. When this has been made is in the inner and in the upper part of the ear, it must pierce the center of the above mentioned circle with the same brooch, and it must insert the cited root in the hole that has been made, which, since the recent wound tightens it, therefore it's held firm, so that it cannot slip outside; therefore in that ear all the force of the disease and the harmful humour are concentrate, until the part, which has been circumscribed with the brooch, dies and falls down, and with the loss of a minimal part, we save the life to an animal. Cornelius Celsus recommends to pour in the nostrils also mistletoe leaves ground into wine. These are the things to make if the cattle is infected in a mass, the following remedies are instead if a single animal is struck.

[1] Cruditatis signa sunt crebri ructus ac ventris sonitus, fastidia cibi, nervorum intentio, hebetes oculi. Propter quae bos neque ruminat neque lingua se deterget. Remedio erunt aquae calidae duo congii, et mox triginta brassicae caules modice cocti et ex aceto dati. Sed uno die abstinendum est alio cibo. [1] The symptoms of an indigestion are frequent belching and belly noises, refusal of the food, tension of the nerves, dull eyes. Because of this the ox neither ruminate nor cleans himself up by the tongue. The remedy will be two congii (6,5 l) of warm water, and then thirty shortly cooked cabbage stems given with vinegar. But for one day it must keep the animal fasted from other food.
[2] Quidam clausum intra tecta continent, ne pasci possit. Tum lentisci oleastrique cacuminum pondo IIII, et libram mellis una trita permiscent aquae congio, quam nocte una sub dio habent, atque ita faucibus infundunt. Deinde interposita hora macerati ervi quattuor libras obiciunt, aliaque potione prohibent. [2] Some keeps the ox closed in the stable, so that he cannot graze. Then they mix four pounds (1,3 kg) of lentisk and oleaster tops and a pound (0,33 kg) of honey, ground together with a congius (3,25 l) of water and kept for a night in the open air, and they pour it in mouth the animal. Then, after one hour, they put before him four pounds (1,3 kg) of milled bitter vetch, and remove the other drinks.
[3] Hoc per triduum fieri debet, dum omnis causa languoris discutiatur. Nam si neglecta cruditas est, et inflatio ventris et intestinorum maior dolor insequitur, qui nec capere cibos sinit, gemitus exprimit, locoque stare non patitur, saepe decumbere, et agitare caput caudamque crebrius agere cogit. Manifestum remedium est proximam clunibus partem caudae vinculo vehementer obstringere, vinique sextarium cum olei hemina faucibus infundere atque ita citatum per mille et quingentos passus agere. [3] This must be made for three days, until every cause of disease has been eliminated. In fact, if an indigestion is neglected, then a swelling of the venter and a still greater an intestinal pain come, which doesn't allow the animal to take food, and wrings him wailings, doesn't leave it to stay on place, and forces him to lay down frequently, to shake his head and to move his tail more often than usual. The obvious remedy is to strongly tighten with a rope the part of the tail which is closer to the buttocks, to pour in mouth of the animal a sextarius (0,54 l) of wine with a hemina (0,27 l) of oil and to make him run for one thousand five hundred steps.
[4] Si dolor remanet, ungulas circumsecare, et uncta manu per anum inserta fimum extrahere, rursusque agere currentem. Si nec hoc profuit, tres caprifici aridi conteruntur, et cum dodrante aquae calidae dantur. Ubi nec haec medicina processit, myrti silvestris foliorum duae librae laevigantur, totidemque sextarii calidae aquae misti per vas ligneum faucibus infunduntur. Atque ita sub cauda sanguis emittitur. Qui cum satis profluxit, inhibetur papyri ligamine. Tum concitate agitur pecus eo usque, dum anhelat. [4] If the pain remains, the hooves must be cut all around and, greasing the hand, it must slip a hand into the anus and extract the faeces, then making the animal run again. If neither this method works, it must grind three dried wild figs and give them to the ox with three quarters of congius (2,5 l) of warm water. If neither this treatment helps, two pounds (650 g) of wild myrtle leaves must be reduced to powder, then mixed with two sextaries (1.1 l) of warm water, and by a wooden vase poured in the throat of the animal. Finally the animal must be bleeded under the tail, and as enough blood came out, it must plug with a papyrus bandage. Then it must make the animal run until he pants.
[5] Sunt et ante detractionem sanguinis illa remedia: tribus heminis vini tres unciae pinsiti alii permiscentur, et post eam potionem currere cogitur. Vel salis sextans cum cepis decem conteritur, et admisto melle decocto collyria immittuntur alvo, atque ita citatus bos agitur. [5] Before bleeding other remedies can also be tried: three heminae (0.81 l) of wine with three ounces (82 g) of pounded garlic are mixed, and after giving this potion it must make the animal run. Or instead it must grind a sextant (9 cl) of salt with ten onions, then this is mixed with honey boiled for long time and the ointment that comes out is introduced like an enema, and then it must goad the animal to run fast.

[1] Ventris quoque et intestinorum dolor sedatur visu nantium et maxime anatis. Quam si conspexerit, cui intestinum dolet, celeriter tormento liberatur. Eadem anas maiore profectu mulos et equinum genus conspectu suo sanat. Sed interdum nulla prodest medicina. Sequitur torminum vitium, quorum signum est cruenta et mucosa ventris proluvies. [1] The venter and intestines pain can be appeased with the sight of swimming animals, and above all of ducks. In fact if an ox which has intestine pain sees them, he will quickly be freed from his trouble. But the sight of the same duck cures with greater effectiveness the mules and horses. But sometimes no medicine works, and the dysentery comes, whose marks are diarrhoea with blood and mucus.
[2] Remedio sunt cupressini quindecim coni, totidemque gallae, et utrorumque ponderis vetustissimus caseus. Quibus in unum tunsis admiscentur austeri vini quattuor sextarii, qui pari mensura per quatriduum dispensati dantur; nec desint lentisci myrtique et oleastri cacumina viridis. Alvus corpus ac vires carpit, operique inutilem reddit. Quae cum accident, prohibendus erit bos potione per triduum, primoque die cibo abstinendus. [2] The remedy are fifteen cypress berries, the same number of galls, and an equal weight of very ripe cheese. These ingredients are pounded together and mixed to four sextaries (2,2 l) of sour wine and, shared in parts of equal amount, are administered for four days; and then lentisk, myrtle and oleaster tops must not lack. The intestine pain makes the ox lose weight and removes his forces and makes him unfit for work. When this happens, it must to prevent the ox from drinking for three days, and in the first day it must keep him also without food.
[3] Sed mox cacumina oleastri et arundinis, item baccae lentisci et myrti dandae; nec potestas aquae nisi quam parcissimae facienda est. Sunt qui tenerorum lauri foliorum libram et abrotonum erraticum pari portione deterant cum aquae calidae duobus sextariis, atque ita faucibus infundant, eademque pabula, ut supra diximus, obiciant. [3] But then tops of oleaster and reed must be given, and also lentisk and myrtle berries; moreover water must not be given, if not in a minimal amount. Somebody grinds a pound (325 g) of laurel leaves and an equal amount of wild southernwood with two sextaries (1.1 l) of warm water, and then pours it all in the ox fauces, and then the same forage above described before is administered.
[4] Quidam vinaceorum duas libras torrefaciunt, et ita conterunt cum totidem sextariis vini austeri, potandumque medicamentum praebent, omnique alio humore prohibent, nec minus cacumina praedictarum arborum obiciunt. Quod si neque ventris restiterit citata proluvies, neque intestinorum ac ventris dolor, cibosque respuet, et praegravato capite saepius quam consuevit, lacrymae ab oculis et pituita a naribus profluent, usque ad ossa frons media uratur, auresque ferro scindantur. Sed vulnera facta igne dum sanescunt, defricare bubula urina convenit. Ac ferro rescissa melius pice et oleo curantur. [4] Some toast two pounds (650 g) of grape-stones, and then grind it with an equal amount of sour wine, and make the animal drink this medicine, taking every other drink away from him, and they give them tops of the trees above mentioned. If all this will not stop the above described diarrhoea, and neither the intestines and venter pain, and then the animal will refuse the food, and will hang his head down more often than usual, and tears from his eyes and mucus from his nostrils will come out, the middle part of his forehead must be burnt until the bone and his ears must be notched with a blade. Until the wounds made with fire will not recover, it's better to rub them with bovine urine. The cuts made with the iron are better cured with pitch and oil.

[1] Solent etiam fastidia ciborum afferre vitiosa incrementa linguae, quas ranas veterinarii vocant. Haec ferro reciduntur, et sale cum alio pariter trito vulnera defricantur, donec lacessita pituita decedit. Tum vino proluitur os, et interposito unius horae spatio virides herbae et frondes dantur, dum facta ulcera cicatrices ducant. Si neque ranae fuerint, neque alvus citata, et nihilo minus cibos non appetet, proderit alium pinsitum cum oleo per nares infundere, vel sale, vel cunila defricare fauces, vel eandem partem alio tunso et hallecula linire. Sed haec si solum fastidium est. [1] Usually some difficulty in taking the food is also provoked by those pathological excrescences of the tongue, which the veterinarians call frogs. They must be cutted by a blade, then it must rub the wound with salt and ground garlic in equal amounts, until a mucus draining is provoked. Then the mouth must be rinsed with wine, and after an hour tender grass and leaves are given, which makes the cicatrization of the wounds easier. If also not having neither the frogs, neither the diarrhoea already described, the ox does not take any food, it will be useful introducing in his nostrils some pounded garlic with oil, or rubbing his mouth with salt or origan, or even greasing the same parts with pounded garlic and small anchovies. But this works if the animal is only slightly indisposed.

[1] Febricitanti bovi convenit abstineri cibo uno die, postero deinde exiguum sanguinem ieiuno sub cauda emitti, atque interposita hora modicae magnitudinis coctos brassicae coliculos triginta ex oleo et garo salivati more demitti, eamque escam per quinque dies ieiuno dari. Praeterea cacumina lentisci aut oleae, vel tenerrimam quamque frondem, aut pampinos vitis obici; tum etiam spongia labra detergeri, et aquam frigidam ter die praeberi potandam. [1] An ox with the fever is better left without food for a day, the following day then must be slightly bled under the tail, and after an hour it must make the ox swallow as a salivary thirty medium size cabbage stems cooked in oil and fermented fish sauce, and this food is given to the fasted ox for five days. After this tops of lentisk or olive tree must be given, or leaft branches provided they are most tender, or even vine leaves; then with a sponge the lips are cleaned up, and cold water for three days is given as a drink.
[2] Quae medicina sub tecto fieri debet, nec ante sanitatem bos emitti. Signa febricitantis manantes lacrimae, gravatum caput, oculi compressi, fluidum salivis os, longior et cum quodam impedimento tractus spiritus, interdum et cum gemitu. [2] This medicine is administered in a covered place, and the ox must not be sent out until he recovers. The symptoms of the the fever in an animals are lacrimation, head hanging down, hollow eyes, saliva dripping from the mouth, prolonged breaths and somehow difficult, which every so often turn to groans.

[1] Recens tussis optime salivato farinae ordeaceae discutitur. Interdum magis prosunt gramina concisa, et his admista fresa faba. Lentis quoque valvulis exemptae, et minute molitae, miscentur aquae calidae sextarii duo, factaque sorbitio per cornu infunditur. Veterem tussim sanant duae librae hyssopi macerati sextariis aquae tribus. Nam id medicamentum teritur, et cum lentis minute, ut dixi, molitae sextariis quattuor more salivati datur, ac postea aqua hyssopi per cornu infunditur. [1] A recently appeared cough is fought very well with a salivary of barley flour. Once in a while some ground cereals, mixed to milled fava beans are better. Also lentils, provided that are peeled from the hulls, and finely milled, mixed with two sextaries (1.1 l) of warm water can be made swallow by means of a horn. If the cough is of old date it recovers with two pounds (1.6 l) of hyssop macerated in three sextaries (1.6 l) of water. This medicine must be ground and, after mixing it with the finely milled lentils, as seen before, four sextaries (2.2 l) of it are given as a salivary, and then with a horn the water used to macerate the hyssop is made the ox to swallow.
[2] Porri enim succus oleo, vel ipsa fibra cum ordeacea farina contrita remedio est. Eiusdem radices diligenter lotae, et cum farre triticeo pinsitae ieiunoque datae vetustissimam tussim discutiunt. Facit idem pari mensura ervum sine valvulis cum torrefacto ordeo molitum, et salivati more in fauces demissum. [2] A good remedy is also leek juice with oil, or even the solid part remaining of the same leek, ground with barley flour. The leek roots accurately washed and pounded with wheat flour and then fed the fasted animal, will send the oldest cough away. The same effect is obtained with bitter vetch without hulls milled with an equal amount of toasted barley, and poured in the throat as a salivary.

[1] Suppuratio melius ferro rescinditur, quam medicamento. Expressa deinde sanie sinus ipse, qui eam continebat, calida bubula urina eluitur, atque ita linamentis pice liquida et oleo imbutis colligatur. Vel si colligari ea pars non potest, lamina candenti sevum caprinum aut bubulum instillatur. Quidam, cum vitiosam partem inusserunt, urina vetere eluunt, atque ita aequis ponderibus incocta pice liquida cum vetere axungia linunt. [1] An abscess, rather than be cured with medicines, is better lanced with a blade. Then, once the pus that it contained has been squeezed out, it must rinse with warm bovine urine, and wrap it with bandages soaked in liquid pitch and oil. Or even, if the sick part cannot be wrapped, with an incandescent blade they make drip goat or beef fat on it. Somebody, after having cauterized the sick part, then rinse it with old urine, and grease it with liquid pitch cooked with an equal amount of old lard.

 [1] Sanguis demissus in pedes claudicationem affert. Quod cum accidit, statim ungula inspicitur. Tactus autem fervorem demonstrat; nec bos vitiatam partem vehementius premi patitur. Sed si sanguis adhuc supra ungulas in cruribus est, fricatione assidua discutitur; vel cum ea nihil profuit, scarificatione demitur. At si iam in ungulis est, inter duos ungues cultello leviter aperies.  [1] If some blood accumulates in the feet, it causes lameness. When this happens, it must at once check the hoof: actually it's warm as you touch it, and the ox can't stand that the sick part is pressed. Anyway, if the blood still stands in the leg, above the hoof, it must be removed massaging it for a long time. However, if this treatment doesn't work, the blood can be removed by an incision. If the blood already is in the hooves, then it must delicately lance with a knife between the two fingers.
[2] Postea linamenta sale atque aceto imbuta applicantur, ac solea spartea pes induitur, maximeque datur opera, ne bos in aquam pedem mittat, et ut sicce stabuletur. Hic idem sanguis nisi emissus fuerit, famicem creabit, qui si suppuraverit, tarde percurabitur; ac primum ferro circumcisus et expurgatus, deinde pannis aceto et sale et oleo madentibus inculcatis, mox axungia vetere et sevo hircino pari pondere decoctis, ad sanitatem perducitur. [2] After this is must apply bandages soaked in salt and vinegar, and wrap up the foot in a broom sole, and above all it must take care that the ox doesn't put the foot into the water and be stabled in a dry place. If the blood will not go out, it will create a haematoma, which as suppurates, recovers very slowly; then first of all it must cut it all around with a blade and make it purge, then it must wrap it tight with a cloth soaked in vinegar, salt and oil, and the wound will recover with old lard and goat fat cooked and in equal amount.
[3] Si sanguis in inferiore parte ungulae est, extrema pars ipsius unguis ad vivum resecatur, et ita emittitur, ac linamentis pes involutus spartea munitur. Mediam ungulam ab inferiore parte non expedit aperire, nisi eo loco iam suppuratio facta est. Si dolore nervorum claudicat, oleo et sale genua poplitesque et crura confricanda sunt, donec sanetur. [3] If the blood stagnates in the lower part of the hoof, the tip of the same hoof will be trimmed to the quick, and this way the blood will come out; then the foot will be bundled up with linen bandages and it will be protected with a broom sole. It's better not to open the inner hoof from the lower part, unless a suppuration has already been formed. If the ox limps by a tendons pain, it must rub his knees, fetlocks and legs with oil and salt, until it recovers.
[4] Si genua intumuerint, calido aceto fovenda sunt, et lini semen aut milium detritum conspersumque aqua mulsa imponendum; spongia quoque ferventi aqua imbuta et expressa litaque melle recte genibus applicatur, ac fasciis circumdatur. Quod si tumori subest aliquis humor, fermentum vel farina ordeacea ex passo aut aqua mulsa decocta imponitur; et cum maturuerit suppuratio, rescinditur ferro, eaque emissa, ut supra docuimus, linamentis curatur. [4] If the knees swell, a compress with warm vinegar must be made, and then it must put on it linen seeds or ground millet dipped into water mixed with honey; it's also good to apply on the knees sponges soaked in hot water and then wrung, and held in place with bandages. If under the swelling there is some liquid, it must apply fermented barley or barley flour cooked into raisin wine or into water with honey; and when the abscess comes to a head, it must open it up with a blade, and after making the pus come out, it must cure with the bandages we previously described.
[5] Possunt etiam, ut Cornelius Celsus praecipit, lilii radix aut scilla cum sale, vel sanguinalis herba, quam polygonon Graeci appellant, vel marrubium ferro reclusa sanare. Fere autem omnis dolor corporis, si sine vulnere est, recens melius fomentis discutitur; vetus uritur, et supra ustum butyrum vel caprina instillatur adeps. [5] It's also possible to heal the abscesses opened up by the blade, as Cornelius Celsus teaches, with lily roots or squill with salt, or with the knotgrass, that the Greeks call polygonon, or with horehound. Nearly every pain of the body then, if it does not depend on wounds, is better fought with poultices, if it's recent, or must be burnt if it's old, and over the burn butter or goat fat must be dripped.

[1] Scabies extenuatur trito alio defricto; eademque remedio curatur rabiosae canis vel lupi morsus, qui tamen et ipse imposito vulneri vetere salsamento aeque bene sanatur. Et ad scabiem praesentior alia medicina est. Cunila bubula et sulphur conteruntur, admistaque amurca cum oleo atque aceto incoquuntur. Deinde tepefactis scissum alumen tritum spargitur. Id medicamentum candente sole illitum maxime prodest. [1] Scabies vanishes if rubbed with ground garlic; and with the same remedy the bite of the rabid dog or of the wolf is cured, even if it recovers well the same if on the wound is placed some old brine. And for the scabies there is another more effective medicine. Dittany and sulfur must be ground together and after mixing them with olive oil dregs, they are cooked with oil and vinegar. Then it must let it cool down and strew it with milled alum in pieces. This medicine has the higher effectiveness when smeared in bright sunshine.
[2] Ulceribus gallae tritae remedio sunt. Nec minus succus marrubii cum fuligine. Est et infesta pestis bubulo pecori; coriaginem rustici appellant, cum pellis ita tergori adhaeret, ut apprehensa manibus deduci a costis non possit. Ea res non aliter accidit, quam si bos aut ex languore aliquo ad maciem perductus est, aut sudans in opere faciendo refrixit, aut si sub onere pluvia madefactus est. [2] Minced galls are a remedy for the ulcerations. And horehound juice with soot are not less useful. There is also a dangerous cattle disease, that the breeders call coriago, by which the skin sticks so much to the body, that when grasped by the hands cannot be taken off the ribs. This sickness occurs only for some very defined reasons: he has been made emaciated for some disease, or has catched cold while he was sweaty by the work, or even he has been drenched by the rain while he was carrying weights.
[3] Quae quoniam perniciosa sunt, custodiendum est, ut cum ab onere boves redierint, adhuc aestuantes anhelantesque vino aspergantur, et offae adipis faucibus eorum inserantur. Quod si praedictum vitium inhaeserit, proderit decoquere laurum et ea calda fovere terga, multoque oleo et vino confestim subigere, ac per omnes partes apprehendere et attrahere pellem. Idque optime fit sub dio, sole fervente. Quidam fraces vino et adipi commiscent, eoque medicamento post fomenta praedicta utuntur. [3] Since this disease is pernicious, it must take care that, as the oxen come back from the work, still hot and panting, they are sprinkled of wine, and mouthfuls of lard are put in their throat. But if the oxen already have been struck by the above described sickness, it will be useful to make a laurel decoction and, while it is still warm, make poultices on their back, and keep massaging them with much oil and wine, then seizing and pulling the skin in any point. It's better to do all this in the open air, under the bright sun. Some mix olive susks with wine and lard, and use this medicine after making the poultices over described.

[1] Est etiam illa gravis pernicies, cum pulmones exulcerantur. Inde tussis et macies et ad ultimum phthisis invadit. Quae ne mortem afferant, radix consiliginis ita, ut supra docuimus, perforatae auriculae inseritur, tum porri succus instar heminae pari olei mensurae miscetur, et cum vini sextario potandus datur diebus compluribus. [1] Another serious disease is also that, in which lungs ulcerate. Then cough, emaciation and finally phthisis burst in. In order not to allow that all this takes to the death, in a hole pierced in an ear lugwort roots must be inserted, as we previously described, then approximately a hemina (0,27 l) of leak juice with an equal amount of oil must be mixed, and for several days with a sextary (0,54 l) of wine must be given to drink.
[2] Interdum et tumor palati cibos respuit, crebrumque suspirium facit, et hanc speciem praebet, ut bos in latus pendere videatur. Ferro palatum opus est sauciare, ut sanguis profluat, et exemptum valvulis ervum maceratum viridemque frondem, vel aliud molle pabulum, dum sanetur praebere. [2] Sometimes they refuse the food also for a palate swelling, that makes the breath gasping, and creates such an aspect for which the ox seems to lean by a side. The palate must be lanced with a blade, in order to let the blood out, and macerated bitter vetch peeled from the hulls and green leaves or other tender forage must be fed, until the ox recovers.
[3] Si in opere collum contuderit, praestantissimum est remedium sanguis de aure emissus; aut si id factum non erit, herba, quae vocatur avia, cum sale trite et imposita. Si cervix mota et deiecta est, considerabimus quam in partem declinet, et ex diversa auricula sanguinem detrahemus. Ea porro vena, quae in aure videtur esse amplissima, sarmento prius verberatur. Deinde cum ad ictum intumuit, cultello solvitur; et postero die iterum ex eodem loco sanguis emittitur, ac biduo ab opere datur vacatio. Tertio deinde die levis iniungitur labor, et paulatim ad iusta perducitur. [3] If during the work the ox neck was bruised, the most effective remedy is bleeding an ear, or if this will not be made, some groundsel, that grass which is called avia, grinded with salt must be put on it. If the neck displaced or lowered itself, it must check by which part it hangs, and then bleed the ear of the opposite side. Then first of all it must whip by a twig that vein that appears much in relief in the ear. Then when it swells because of the blows, it must be lanced with a knife, and the day after bleeded again in the same point, and then for two days the ox must be exempted from the work. Then the third day a little light work must be imposed, and little by little it must take him again to the normal charge.
[4] Quod si cervix in neutram partem deiecta est, mediaque intumuit, ex utraque auricula sanguis emittitur. Qui cum intra triduum, cum bos vitium cepit, emissus non est, intumescit collum, nervique tenduntur, et inde nata durities iugum non patitur. [4] And if the neck does not lean by one or other side, but it is swollen in the middle, it must bleed both ears. If not bleeded within three days from the appearance of the ailment, the neck swells, the tendons shrink and a hardening arises which not allow the ox to stand the yoke.
[5] Tali vitio comperimus aureum esse medicamentum ex pice liquida et bubula medulla et hircino sevo et vetere oleo aequis ponderibus compositum atque incoctum. Hac compositione sic utendum est. Cum disiungitur ab opere, in ea piscina, ex qua bibit, tumor cervicis aqua madefactus subigitur, praedictoque medicamento defricatur et illinitur. [5] For this ailment we have learned that there is an very good medicine made with liquid pitch, beef marrow, goat fat and old oil mixed in equal amounts and boiled. This compound must be used this way: when after the job the yoke is removed from the ox, and in the same basin in which he drinks, the swelling is soaked and massaged, and then it is rubbed and smeared with the medicine above described.
[6] Si ex toto propter cervicis tumorem iugum recuset, paucis diebus requies ab opere danda est. Tum cervix aqua frigida defricanda et spuma argenti illinenda est. Celsus quidem tumenti cervici herbam, quae vocatur avia, ut supra dixi, contundi et imponi iubet. Clavorum, qui fere cervicem infestant, minor molestia est; nam facile oleo per ardentem lucernam instillato curantur. [6] If by the neck swelling the ox refuses at all the yoke, few days of rest from the work must be given. Then the neck is rubbed with cold water and smeared with litharge. Celsus just prescribes to pound and apply on the swollen neck that grass called avia, as I have said before. The trouble given by the bulges that commonly plague the neck is lesser, in fact they can be easily cured making drip oil from a burning oil-lamp.
[7] Potior tamen ratio est custodiendi, ne nascantur, neve colla calvescant, quae non aliter glabra fiunt, nisi cum sudore aut pluvia cervix in opere madefacta est. Itaque cum id accidit, lateritio trito prius quam disiungantur colla conspergi oportet; deinde cum id siccum erit, subinde oleo imbui. [7] The better solution is anyway to take care that these bulges don't arise, and the neck don't loose hair, and the neck does not become hairless for no other reason, but because it has been soaked of sweat and rain during the work. And when this happens, on the neck ground bricks must be scattered, before detaching the ox from the yoke; then, as it has been dried up, it must be impregnated with oil.

[1] Si talum aut ungulam vomer laeserit, picem duram et axungiam cum sulphura et lana succida involutam candente ferro supra vulnus inurito. Quod idem remedium optime facit exempta stirpe, si forte surculum calcaverit, aut acuta testa vel lapide ungulam pertuderit; quae tamen si altius vulnerata est, latius ferro circumciditur, et ita inuritur, ut supra praecepi; deinde spartea calceata per triduum suffuso aceto curatur. [1] If the ploughshare hurts the pastern or the hoof, solid pitch and lard wrapped in greasy wool with sulfur must be melted on the wound with an incandescent iron. This same remedy works very well if, extirpating a shrub, by chance he has treaded upon a branch, or a hoof has been hurt by a broken brick or a pebble; if then the hoof has been hurt more upwards, it must widen all around the cut with a blade, and then melt on it the stuffs I have mentioned above; then, after putting a broom sole, it must cure it bathing it with vinegar for three days.
[2] Item si vomer crus sauciarit, marina lactuca, quam Graeci tithymalon vocant, admisto sale imponitur. Subtriti pedes eluuntur calefacta bubula urina; deinde fasce sarmentorum incenso, cum iam ignis in favillam recidit, ferventibus cineribus cogitur insistere, ac pice liquida cum oleo vel axungia cornua eius linuntur. Minus tamen claudicabunt armenta, si opere disiunctis multa frigida laventur pedes; et deinde suffragines, coronae, ac discrimen ipsum, quo divisa est bovis ungula, vetere axungia defricentur. [2] In the same way if the ploughshare hurts a leg, it must put on it some sea lectuce, that the Greeks call tithymalon, mixed to salt. If the feet are impaired downside, it must wash them with heated cattle urine; then it must set a vine-shoots faggot on fire, and as soon as the flame turns into sparks, the ox must be forced to walk on burning ashes, and the corneous part of the hoof must be smeared with liquid pitch with oil or lard. The ox then will limp less, if as soon as untied from the yoke, the feet will be washed with plenty of cold water, and then the fetlock, the coronet and the sulcus that parts the two hooves of the ox will be rubbed with lard.

[1] Saepe etiam vel gravitate longi laboris, vel [cum] in proscindendo, aut duriori solo, aut obviae radici obluctatus, convellit armos. Quod cum accidit, et prioribus cruribus sanguis mittendus est; si dextrum armum laesit, in sinistro; si laevum, in dextro; si vehementius utrumque vitiavit, item in posterioribus cruribus venae solventur. [1] Oftentime also for the heaviness of a long work, or during the plowing, or by the hardness of the soil, or pulling against a root found on the way, the ox sprains his shoulder. When this happens, if right shoulder is injured, the left fore leg must be bled, if instead the left shoulder is impaired, it must bleed the right limb; if by a harder strain both shoulders are hurt, the veins in hind limbs must be opened.
[2] Praefractis cornibus linteola sale atque aceto et oleo imbuta superponuntur, ligatisque per triduum eadem infunduntur. Quarto demum axungia pari pondere cum pice liquida, et cortice pineo, levigata imponitur. Et ad ultimum cum iam cicatricem ducunt, fuligo infricatur. Solent etiam neglecta ulcera scatere vermibus; qui si mane perfunduntur aqua frigida, rigore contracti decidunt, vel si hac ratione non possunt eximi, marrubium aut porrum conteritur, et admisto sale imponitur. Id celeriter necat praedicta animalia. [2] On the broken horns a bandage soaked into salt, vinegar and oil must be put on, then horns are tied and soaked for three days. Finally, in the fourth day, lard and liquid pitch in equal part are put over, with pulverized pine bark. Finally, as the horns have already made a scar, rub them with soot. It happens also that from the neglected wounds worms come out, which if in the morning are bathed with cold water, they shrink and fall. If they cannot be removed this way, just grind some horehound or leak, then stir them with salt and put it on the wound. This treatment quickly kills the above mentioned animals.
[3] Sed expurgatis ulceribus confestim adhibenda sunt linamenta cum pice et oleo vetereque axungia, et extra vulnera eodem medicamento circumlinienda, ne infestentur a muscis, quae, ubi ulceribus insederunt, vermes creant. [3] But, once the wounds are purged, bandages with pitch, oil and old lard must be soon applied, and it must smear all around the same medicine even outside the wound, so that this be not infested by flies, which, if stand on the wounds, make the worms come.

[1] Est etiam mortiferus serpentis ictus, est et minorum animalium noxium virus. Nam et vipera et caecilia saepe cum in pascuo bos improvide supercubuit, lacessita onere morsum imprimit. Musque araneus, quem Graeci mygalen appellant, quamvis exiguis dentibus non exiguam pestem molitur. Venena viperae depellit super scarificationem ferro factam herba, quam vocant personatam, trita et cum sale imposita. [1] Also the snake bite is lethal, and the poison of smaller animals is injurious. In fact often the viper and the slow-worm, as in the pasture an ox incautiously lay over them, disturbed by the weight, sinks a bite. And the shrew, that the Greeks call migale, even having small teeth, produces a not weak damage. The viper's poison must be removed making an incision with a blade and putting on it the grass called personata (the burdock), ground and mixed with salt.
[2] Plus etiam eiusdem radix contusa prodest, vel si montanum trifolium invenitur, quod confragosis locis efficacissimum nascitur, odoris gravis, neque absimilis bitumini, et idcirco Graeci eam asphalton appellant; nostri autem propter figuram vocant acutum trifolium; nam longis et hirsutis foliis viret, caulemque robustiorem facit, quam pratense. [2] The pounded roots of the same plant does even more well, as well as, if can be found, the mountain clover, which is more effective if it grows in steep places, and that has a strong smell, not dissimilar from that of bitumen, and that's why the Greeks call it asphalton; instead we call it sharp clover, for its shape: in fact it has long and hairy leaves, and its stem is sturdier than that of red clover.
[3] Huius herbae succus vino mistus infunditur faucibus, atque ipsa folia cum sale trita malagmatis more, scarificationi intenditur; vel si hanc herbam viridem tempus anni negat, semina eius collecta et levigata cum vino dantur potanda, radicesque cum suo caulae tritae, atque hordeaceae farinae et sali commistae ex aqua mulsa scarificationi superponuntur. [3] The juice of this grass, added to wine, is poured into the mouth of the animal, and the same leaves, ground and added to salt, are smeared as a poultice on the incision; or, when this grass is not available fresh because of the season, its seeds, collected, pulverized and mixed with wine, are given as a drink, and the roots ground with the stems and barley flour, mixed with water and honey, are placed on the incision.
[4] Est etiam praesens remedium, si conteras fraxini tenera cacumina quinque librarum, cum totidem vini et duobus sextariis olei, expressumque succum faucibus infundas; itemque cacumina eiusdem arboris cum sale trita laesae parti superponas. Caeciliae morsus tumorem, suppurationem molitur. Idem facit etiam muris aranei. Sed illius sanatur noxa subula aenea, si locum laesum compungas, cretaque cimolia ex aceto linas. [4] Another effective remedy is to grind five pounds (1600 g) of tender ash-tree tops, and the juice that comes out, mixed with the same amount of wine and two sestaries (1 liter) of oil, is poured in the animal's jaws; the ground tops of the same tree added with salt are put also on the wounded part. The bite of the slow-worm causes swelling and suppuration. The same happens with the bite of the shrew. But the bite of the former is cured stinging the injured part with a copper blade, smearing then it with Cimulus clay with vinegar.
[5] Mus perniciem, quam intulit, suo corpore luit; nam animal ipsum oleo mersum necatur, et cum imputruit, conteritur, eaque medicamine morsus muris aranei linitur. Vel si id non adest, tumorque ostendit iniuriam dentium, cuminum conteritur, eique adicitur exiguum picis liquidae et axungiae, ut lentorem malagmatis habeat. [5] The evil made by the shrew is recovered by its same body: indeed it must kill this animal drowning it oil and, as it is decomposed, it must be ground and this medicine must be smeared on the bite of the shrew. Or, if the shrew is not found, and a swelling demonstrates the damage made by the teeth, it must grind some cumin, some liquid pitch and lard is added, to make the poultice thick.
[6] Id impositum pernicem commovet. Vel si antequam tumor discutiatur, in suppurationem convertitur, optimum est ignea lamina conversionem resecare, et quicquid vitiosi est, inurere, atque ita liquida pice cum oleo linire. Solet etiam ipsum animal creta figulari circumdari; quae cum siccata est, collo boum suspenditur. Ea res innoxium pecus a morsu muris aranei praebet. [6] Putting this mixture on the bite, it is healed. Or even, if, before being cured, the swelling suppurates, the better thing is to lance the injury with a red-hot blade, and to burn all the rotten parts, smearing them with liquid pitch with oil. Often the same shrew is wrapped up with pottery clay, and when it dries, it must hang it to the neck of the ox. This makes cattle immune from the bite of the shrew.
[7] Oculorum vitia plerumque melle sanantur. Nam sive intumuerunt, aqua mulsa triticea farina conspergitur et imponitur; sive album in oculo est, montanus sal Hispanus vel Ammoniacus vel etiam Cappadocus, minute tritus et immistus melli vitium extenuat. Facit idem trita sepiae testa, et per fistulam ter die oculo inspirata. Facit et radix, quam Graeci silphion vocant, vulgus autem nostra consuetudine laserpitium appellant. [7] The eyes ailments cured mainly with honey. In fact, when they swell, wheat flour is soaked into water and honey, and then applied on them; if in the eye there is some white, some mountain salt, either Spanish, or ammoniac or from Cappadocia, finely ground and mixed with honey reduces the trouble. A cuttle-bone ground and blown in the eye with a cane for three days has the same effect. It does well also the root that the Greeks call silphion, while by a popular custom we call it laserpitium.
[8] Huius quantocumque ponderi decima pars salis ammoniaci adicitur, eaque pariter trita oculo similiter infunduntur, vel eadem radix contusa et cum oleo lentisci inuncta vitium expurgat. Epiphoram supprimit polenta conspersa mulsa aqua, et in supercilia genasque imposita, pastinacae quoque agrestis semina, et succus armoraceae, cum melle laevigata oculorum sedant dolorem. [8] To any amounts in weight of this weed, the tenth part of ammoniac salt can be added, and after having ground them in the same way, they must be poured in the eye as seen before, or the same root, pounded and greased with lentisk oil, eliminates the ailment. A barleymeal porridge soaked into water and honey and put on the eyebrow and in the hollow of the orbit, get the ox rid of lachrymation, and also the seeds of wild parsnip, and radish juice, diluted with honey, calms the eye-ache.
[9] Sed quotiescumque mel aliusve succus remediis adhibetur, circumliniendus erit oculus pice liquida cum oleo, ne a muscis infestetur. Nam et ad dulcedinem mellis aliorumque medicamentorum non hae solae sed et apes advolant. [9] But every time that honey or some other sweet juice will be used as a remedy, it must smear all around the eye with liquid pitch with oil, so that it will not be infested by flies. Indeed surely the sweetness of the honey and other medicines makes not only the flies, but also the bees to fly on.

[1] Magnam etiam perniciem saepe affert hirudo hausta cum aqua. Ea adhaerens faucibus sanguinem ducit et incremento suo transitum cibis praecludit. Si tam difficili loco est, ut manu trahi non possit, fistulam vel arundinem inserito, et ita calidum oleum infundito; nam eo contactum animal confestim decedit. [1] Often also a leech, swallowed with the water, makes a great damage. This, clinging with its mouth, sucks the blood, and swelling itself, blocks the food transit. If it is sticked in a place where it is difficult to tear it away with the hands, it must put a small reed or a cane inside the mouth, and pour in warm oil; indeed in contact with it the animal dies immediately.
[2] Potest etiam per fistulam deusti cimicis nidor immitti; qui ubi superponitur igni, fumum emittit, et conceptum nidorem fistula usque ad hirundinem perfert; isque nidor depellit haerentem. Si tamen vel stomachum vel intestinum tenet, calido aceto per cornu infuso necatur. Has medicinas quamvis bubus adhibendas praeceperim, posse tamen ex his plurima etiam maiori pecori convenire nihil dubium est. [2] Another remedy is to make the smoke of a burnt stinking bug get in with a cane: indeed this insect, when is put on the fire, produces smoke, that is collected with a cane and made it reach the leech, and this forces the parasite to drop down; if instead it clung in the stomach or the intestine, it must be killed making the ox swallow warm vinegar using a horn as a funnel. These medicines, that I advised for the oxen above all, can however for the greater part be effective without any doubt also for any livestock.

[1] Sed et machina fabricanda est, qua clausa, iumenta bovesque curentur, ut et tutus accessus ad pecudem medenti sit, nec in ipsa curatione quadrupes reluctando remedia respuat. Est autem talis machinae forma. Roboreis axibus compingitur solum, quod habet in longitudinem pedes novem, et in latitudinem pars prior dupondium semissem, pars posterior quattuor pedes. [1] Anyway a crush must also be built in which horses and oxen could be cured, shutting them up inside, so that who cures them can approach the livestock keeping sheltered, and the quadruped during the same cure cannot refuse the medicines. The shape of this crush is this: the bottom is made of oak boards, it is nine feet long (2,70 m) and is two feet and half (75 cm) wide in the front part, and four feet (1,20 m) in the back part.
[2] Huic solo septenum pedum stipites recti ab utroque latere quaterni applicantur. Ii autem in ipsis quattuor angulis affixi sunt, omnesque transversis sex temonibus quasi vacerrae inter se ligantur, ita ut a posteriore parte, quae latior est, velut in caveam quadrupes possit induci, nec exire alia parte prohibentibus adversis axiculis. Primis autem duobus statuminibus imponitur firmum iugum, ad quod iumenta capistrantur, vel boum cornua religantur. Ubi potest etiam numella fabricari, ut inserto capite descendentibus per foramina regulis cervix catenetur. [2] To this bottom four vertical posts seven feet high (2.10 m) are applied in every side. These posts are then rammed at the same four corners, and they all are fixed one another by six transversal poles, like a palissade, so that the quadruped can be made to go in like in a cage by the back side, which is wider, and cannot go out by the other part, blocked by the small boards put in front. Over the first two posts a solid yoke is then placed, to which the horses can be haltered up, or the oxen tied by the horns. Here a head bail can also be built, so that, once the head is inserted there, the neck can be tied to the vertical bars, by means of the holes they bear.
[3] Ceterum corpus laqueatum et distentum temonibus obligatur, immotumque medentis arbitrio est expositum. Haec ipsa machina communis erit omnium maiorum quadrupedum. [3] The rest of the body, tied and stretched out, is fastened to the transversal poles and is immobilized, at disposal of who medicates. This same crush will be commonly used for all the large size livestock.

[1] Quoniam de bubus satis praecepimus, opportune de tauris vaccisque dicemus. Tauros maxime membris amplissimis, moribus placidis, media aetate probandos censeo. Cetera fere omnia eadem in his observabimus, quae in bubus eligendis. Neque enim alio distat bonus taurus a castrato, nisi quod huic torva facies est, vegetior aspectus, breviora cornua, torosior cervix, et ita vasta, ut sit maxima portio corporis, venter paulo substrictior, qui magis rectus et ad ineundas feminas habilis sit. [1] Since we have given enough suggestions about the oxen, it is appropriate to speak about the bulls and the cows. I deem that above all must be chosen the bulls of great proportions, quiet character and middle-aged. With regard to nearly all the other characteristics we will follow the same indications given for the choice of the oxen. In fact a good bull does not differ from a steer except because it has a threatening attitude, a more vigorous aspect, shorter horns, a brawnier neck, wide enough to be the wider part of the body, a somehow narrower venter which, being straighter, is fit to the mating with the cows.

[1] Vaccae quoque probantur altissimae formae longaeque, maximis uteris, frontibus latissimis, oculis nigris et patentibus, cornibus venustis et levibus et nigrantibus, pilosis auribus, compressis malis, palearibus et caudis amplissimis, ungulis modicis, et modicis cruribus. Cetera quoque fere eadem in feminis, quae et in maribus, desiderantur, et praecipue ut sint novellae, quoniam, cum excesserunt annos decem, foetibus inutiles sunt. Rursus minores bimis iniri non oportet. [1] Also the cows are appreciated if they have a very tall and long frame, with a wide venter, very large forehead, wide black eyes, graced, light and black horns, hairy ears, matching jaws, very large dewlap and tail, light hooves and not too much big legs. The other traits sought in the females are nearly the same ones sought in the males, and above all that they are young since, once they exceed the ten years of age, they became unfit to calve. Instead it's not suitable to make the heifers under two years of age to couple.
[2] Si ante tamen conceperint, partum earum removeri placet, ac per triduum, ne laborent, ubera exprimi, postea mulctra prohiberi. [2] If in spite of this they get however pregnant, it will be better to remove their calf, and for three days squeeze their udder, so that they do not suffer, but then don't milk them anymore.

[1] Sed et curandum est omnibus annis [in hoc] aeque in reliquis gregibus pecoris, ut delectus habeatur. Nam et enixae et vetustae quae gignere desierunt, summovendae sunt, et utique taurae, quae locum fecundarum occupant, ablegandae vel aratro domandae, quoniam laboris et operis non minus quam iuvenci, propter uteri sterilitatem, patientes sunt. [1] Anyway it must take care that every year also in the other herds of livestock a selection be made. In fact it must cull both the cows exausted by the calvings, both the old ones, that ceased calving, and above all the barren heifers, that steal the place of the fertile ones, must be culled or trained to pull the plow, since they stand well the labour and the work in the fields not less than the oxen, because of their sterility.
[2] Eiusmodi armentum maritima et aprica hiberna desiderat; aestate opacissima nemorum ac montium alta magis quam plana pascua. Nam melius nemoribus herbidis et frutetis et carectis, * * * . . . quoniam siccis ac lapidosis locis durantur ungulae. Nec tam fluvios rivosque desiderat, quam lacus manu factos; quoniam et fluvialis aqua, quae fere frigidior est, partum abigit, et caelestis iucundior est. Omnes tamen externi frigoris tolerantior equino armento vacca est, ideoque facile sub dio hibernat. [2] The herd needs to winter in sunny places near the sea, deeply shaded in summer by their forests and better in high mountain than on lowland meadows. In fact it is better in grassy forests and shrubs and sedges, * * *. . . since the hooves are hardened on barren and pebbly lands. And they do not have much need of rivers and streams, but rather of smalls lakes purposely dug, since the water of the rivers, that often is colder, provokes abortions, while the rain-water is pleasant. The cows are then much more tolerant to the external cold than the equine livestock, and for this reason they winter more easily in the open air.

[1] Sed laxo spatio consepta facienda sunt, ne in angustiis conceptum altera alterius elidat, et ut invalida fortioris ictus effugiat. Stabula sunt optima saxo aut glarea strata, non incommoda tamen etiam sabulosa: illa, quod imbres respuant; haec, quod celeriter exsorbeant transmittantque. Sed utraque devexa sint, ut humorem effundant; spectentque ad meridiem, ut facile siccentur, et frigidis ventis non sint obnoxia. [1] Then fencings with a wide room must be made, because in narrow spaces, a cow could crush the fetus of another one, and the weaker cows can escape the blows of stronger ones. The better stables are those with stone or gravel floor, but even sandy ones are not bad: the former because reject the water, the latter because absorb and let the fluids drain fast. But both types must have a slope, so that the liquids can run down; moreover they must be oriented south, because they dry up easy, and are not exposed to the cold winds.
[2] Levis autem cura pascui est. Nam ut laetior herba consurgat, fere ultimo tempore aestatis incenditur. Ea res et teneriora pabula recreat, et sentibus ustis fruticem surrecturum in altitudinem compescit. Ipsis vero corporibus affert salubritatem iuxta conseptum saxis et canalibus sal superiectus, ad quem saturae pabulo libenter recurrunt, cum pastorali signo quasi receptui canitur. [2] The cares for the pasture instead are easier. In factin order to make the grass grow luxuriant again, nearly at the end of the summer it must set it on fire. This practice makes pastures regrow tender, and once the brambles are burnt, limits the growth in height of the shrubs. The physical health of the same cattle is then ensured throwing close to the fencings, on stones and in the troughs some salt, to which the beasts, satiated by the pasture, will resort with pleasure, when the stockman's sign resounds almost to recall them in the stable.
[3] Nam id quoque semper crepusculo fieri debet, ut ad sonum buccinae pecus, si quod in silvis substiterit, septa repetere consuescat. Sic enim recognosci grex poterit, numerusque constare, si velut ex militari disciplina intra stabulorum castra manserint. Sed non eadem in tauros exercentur imperia, qui freti viribus per nemora vagantur, liberosque egressus et reditus habent, nec revocantur nisi ad coitus feminarum. [3] This must be always made at twilight, so that at the sound of the bugle the beasts, if by chance they loitered in the forests, get accustomed to return in the stable. In fact in this way we will be able to control the herd and count the heads if, with a nearly military discipline, they will remain in the stables like in a barracks. But the same discipline cannot be exercised on the bulls, that wander through the woods, proud of their force, and have free exit and free entrance, and that are not recalled except in order to mate themselves with the females.

[1] Ex his, qui quadrimis minores sunt, maioresque quam duodecim annorum, prohibentur admissura: illi, quoniam quasi puerili aetate seminandis armentis parum idonei habentur; his, quia senio sunt effeti. Mense Iulio feminae maribus plerumque permittendae, ut eo tempore conceptos proximo vere adultis iam pabulis edant. [1] Between them, those under four years of age or over the age of twelve, are excluded from the mating: the former, being nearly in an infantile age, are considered scarsely fit to inseminate the herd; the latter, being tired out by their old age. The access of the females to the bull must be allowed mainly in the month of July, so that the calves, if conceived in that period, find in the following spring the pastures already grown.
[2] Nam decem mensibus ventrem proferunt, neque ex imperio magistri, sed sua sponte marem patiuntur. Atque in id fere quod dixi tempus, naturalia congruunt desideria, quoniam satietate verni pabuli pecudes exhilaratae lasciviunt in venerem, quam si aut femina recusat, aut non appetit taurus, eadem rationem, qua fastidientibus equis mox praecipiemus, elicitur cupiditas odore genitalium admoto naribus. [2] In fact they carry on the pregnancy for ten months, and accept the male not because ordered by the master, but for their own will. And just in the season that I mentioned, they satisfy their natural desire since, being cheered it because they are satiated bt the spring pastures, take delight in sex, but if a female refuses it, or it does not appreciate the bull, with the same method that later on we will advise for refusing horses, the desire is induced approaching to their nostrils the smell of the genital organs.
[3] Sed et pabulum circa tempus admissurae subtrahitur feminis, ne eas steriles reddat nimia corporis obesitas; et tauris adicitur, quo fortius ineant. Unumque marem quindecim vaccis sufficere abunde est. Qui ubi iuvencam supervenit, certis signis comprehendere licet, quem sexum generaverit, quoniam, si parte dextra desiluit, marem seminasse manifestum est; si laeva, feminam. Id tamen verum esse non aliter apparet, quam si post unum coitum forda non admittit taurum; quod et ipsum raro accidit. [3] But around the period of mating part of the fodder must be taken away to the females, in order to avoid that their excessive body fatness makes them sterile; the fodder instead must be increased to the bulls, so that they mount with more energy. A bull is more than enough for fifteen cows. As the bull mounts the heifer, by certain signs it is possible to understand the sex of the calf that was generated, since, if after the mount he comes down from the right side, it means that a male was generated; if he comes down from the left, a female was generated. But this is comes out true only in case the cow after the first mating don't accept the bull anymore, but this happens very rarely.
[4] Nam quamvis plena foetu non expletur libidine. Adeo ultra naturae terminos etiam in pecudibus plurimum pollent blandae voluptatis illecebrae! Sed non dubium est, ubi pabuli sit laetitia, posse omnibus annis partum educari; at ubi penuria est, alternis submitti; quod maxime in operariis vaccis fieri placet, ut et vituli annui temporis spatio lacte satientur, nec forda simul operis et uteri gravetur onere. Quae cum partum edidit, nisi cibis fulta est, quamvis bona nutrix, labore fatigata nato subtrahit alimentum. [4] In fact although the cow bears the fetus, she does not exaust her desire. To such an extent also in the cattle the allurements of the sweet lust influence to the maximum degree, also beyond the limits of nature! But there is no doubt that, where there is plenty of food, they can be raised making them calve every year; where instead there is lack of food, they are made calve in alternate years. It is better to do it above all for the working cows, so that the calves can be satiated with milk for a year, so that the cow it is not burdened at the same time by the weight of the work and by the pregnancy. When the cow calves, if she is not supported by the food, also being a good mother, tired by the job, whitdraws food to the calf.
[5] Itaque et foetae cytisus viridis et torrefactum ordeum, maceratumque ervum praebetur, et tener vitulus torrido molitoque milio, et permixto cum lacte salivatur. Melius etiam in hos usus Altinae vaccae parantur, quos eius regionis incolae Cevas appellant. Eae sunt humilis staturae, lactis abundantes, propter quod remotis earum foetibus, generosum pecus alienis educatur uberibus; vel si hoc praesidium non adest, faba fresa, et vinum recte tolerat, idque praecipue in magnis gregibus fieri oportet. [5] Therefore, once the cows have calved, they are fed green laburnum and toasted barley and ground bitter vetch, and to the younger calves milled and toasted millet is given, mixed with milk. But for this use it is also better to buy cows from Altinum, than the inhabitants of that region call cevae. They have a low height and are great milk producers, and therefore, after being separated from their calves, the good breed cattle is nourished by udders of alien origin; or if this aid is not available, they accept well also milled broad beans and wine, and this must be mainly done in the greater herds.

[1] Solent autem vitulis nocere lumbrici, qui fere nascuntur cruditatibus. Itaque moderandum est, ut bene concoquant; aut si iam tali vitio laborant, lupini semicrudi conteruntur, et offae salivati more faucibus ingeruntur. Potest etiam cum arida fico et ervo conteri herba Santonica, et formata in offam, sicut salivatum demitti. Facit idem axungiae pars una tribus partibus hyssopi permista. Marrubii quoque succus et porri valet eiusmodi necari animalia. [1] Usually then the calves suffer of worms, than often derive from indigestible foods. Therefore it must be made so that they digest well; or, if they already suffer of this ailment, it must grind some half-cooked lupins, and mouthfuls of this are put in the throat as a salivary. It is also possible to mill wormseed grass with a dry fig and bitter vetch, and making small mouthfuls of it, making them swallow it as a salivary. It does also good a part of old lard mixed to three parts of hyssop. In order to kill these parasites does also good the juice of horehound and leek.

[1] Castrare vitulos Mago censet, dum adhuc teneri sunt; neque id ferro facere, sed fissa ferula comprimere testiculos et paulatim confringere. Idque optimum genus castrationum putat, quod adhibetur aetati tenere sine vulnere. [1] Mago thinks that the calves must be castrated until they are still small; and it must not be made with an iron, but the testicles must be compressed with a splitted cane, crushing them little by little. He also deems that this is the better way to castrate, because it can be used on calves in tender age without hurting them.
[2] Nam ubi iam induruit, melius bimus quam anniculus castratur. Idque facere vere vel autumno luna decrescente praecipit, vitulumque ad machinam deligare; deinde prius quam ferrum admoveas, duabus angustis ligneis regulis veluti forcipibus apprehendere testium nervos, quos Graeci krematheras ab eo appellant, quod ex illis genitalis partes dependent. Comprehensos deinde testes ferro reserare, et expressos ita recidere, ut extrema pars eorum adhaerens praedictis nervis relinquatur. [2] Because, if the calf has already hardened himself, it is better to castrate him at the age of two years rather than of one year. He advises to make it in spring or autumn with moon on the wane, tying the calves to a crush; then, before applying the iron, with two tightened wooden bars, used as tongs, he advises to seize the testicles' legaments, that the Greeks call krematheras, by the fact that the genital organs hang from them. Then after having seized the testicles, they must be pulled outside with the iron and, having torn them out this way, they must be cut off, taking care that at their ends the above mentioned legaments keep joined.
[3] Nam hoc modo nec eruptione sanguinis periclitatur iuvencus, nec in totum effeminatur adempta omni virilitate; formamque servat maris cum generandi vim deposuit; quam tamen ipsam non protinus amittit. Nam si patiaris eum a recenti curatione feminam inire, constat ex eo posse generari. Sed minime id permittendum, ne profluvio sanguinis intereat. Verum vulnera eius sarmenticio cinere cum argenti spuma linenda sunt, abstinendusque eo die ab humore, et exiguo cibo alendus. [3] And therefore this way the steers are not endangered by the loss of blood, and neither is weakened by the loss of all his virility, and moreover keeps the aspect of a male although if he has abandoned the power to fertilize, but this faculty is not lost immediately. In fact if you allow him to mount when the castration is still recent, it is well-known that he can generate. But this must not be allowed in any way, in order to avoid that the animal dies for the loss of blood. Instead it must rub his wound with vine-shoots ash with litharge, not giving him liquids in the day of the castration and give him scanty food to eat.
[4] Sequenti triduo velut aeger cacuminibus arborum et desecto viridi pabulo oblectandus, prohibendusque multa potione. Placet etiam pice liquida et cinere cum exiguo oleo ulcera ipsa post triduum linere, quo et celerius cicatricem ducant, nec a muscis infestentur. Hactenus de bubus dixisse abunde est. [4] In the three following days, like if he were sick, he must be strengthened with shouts of trees and cut up tender grass, and he must be prevented from drinking too much. It is also opportune to grease after three days the wound with liquid pitch and ash with a few oil, that they make the scar to form itself more quickly, and prevent that the wound is infested by the flies. To this point we have said enough about cattle.

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page created: February 1st 2008 and last updated: August 10th 2010