Quae in emendis bubus sequenda quae que vitanda sint,
non ex facili dixerim, cum pecudes pro regionis caelique statu
et habitum corporis et ingenium animi et pili colorem gerant.
Aliae formae sunt Asiaticis, aliae Gallicis, Epiroticis aliae.
Nec tantum diversitas provinciarum, sed ipsa quoque Italia partibus
suis discrepat. Campania plerumque boves progenerat albos et
exiles, labori tamen et culturae patrii soli non inhabiles.
 It's not easy for me to say which principles should
be followed and it's better to avoid purchasing cattle, since
livestock shows, according to regions and climate, different
body conformations, temperaments and coat colours. Asian cattle
looks different from those of Gaul or Epirus. Moreover the difference
is not only between the provinces, but the districts but regions
differ even within Italy. Campania provides mainly white coated
cattle, being slim but not unfit to labour and to tillage
of their native land.
 Umbria vastos et albos; eademque robios, nec minus
probabiles animis quam corporibus. Etruria et Latium compactos,
sed ad opera fortes. Apenninus durissimos omnemque difficultatem
tolerantes, nec ab aspectu decoros. Quae cum tam varia et diversa
sint, tamen quaedam quasi communia et certa praecepta in emendis
iuvencis arator sequi debet; eaque Mago Carthaginiensis ita prodidit,
ut nos deinceps memorabimus.
 Umbria gives very big white cattle, but also red ones
of the same value as to nature and body structure. Etruria and
Latium cattle are square-built but hardy for work. Apennine provides
very strong cattle enduring every adversity, but wretched-looking.
Though cattle are so different and various, a ploughman should
follow, when purchasing calves, some almost common and fixed
rules, which we are later on recalling, as the Carthaginian Mago
handed them down to us.
 Parandi sunt boves novelli, quadrati, grandibus membris,
cornibus proceris ac nigrantibus et robustis, fronte lata et
crispa, hirtis auribus, oculis et labris nigris, naribus resimis
patulisque, cervice longa et torosa, palearibus amplis et paene
ad genua promissis, pectore magno, armis vastis, capaci et tamquam
implente utero, lateribus porrectis, lumbis latis, dorso recto
planoque vel etiam subsidente, clunibus rotundis, cruribus compactis
ac rectis, sed brevioribus potius quam longis, nec genibus improbis,
ungulis magnis, caudis longissimis et setosis, piloque corporis
denso brevique, coloris robii vel fusci, tactu corporis mollissimo.
 Young cattle to purchase should be sturdy, having
big limbs, long horns, black and strong, a wide and curly forehead,
hairy ears, black eyes and lips, wide and turned up nostrils,
long and muscular neck, a broad dewlap almost reaching the knees,
a broad chest, wide
shoulders, a roomy belly looking
like pregnant, ample flanks, broad loins, a straight and flat
or slightly hollow back, rounded buttocks, compact and upright
legs, better short than long,
with faultless knees, large hooves, very long and silky tail,
thick and short hair, reddish or black, very soft to the touch.
 Talis notae vitulos oportet, cum adhuc teneri sunt,
consuescere manu tractari, ad praesepia religari, ut exiguus
in domitura labor eorum et minus sit periculi. Verum nec ante
tertium neque post quintum annum iuvencos domari placet, quoniam
illa aetas adhuc tenera est, haec iam praedura. Eos autem, qui
de grege feri comprehenduntur, sic subigi convenit.
 It's better that calves with these qualities get accustomed
since their early days to be handled and to be tied to the manger,
so that taming labour be lesser and the danger be lower. Surely
it's not convenient that steers are tamed before the third year
or past the fifth year of age, because the former age is still
premature and the latter is already hardened. Moreover the steers
catched from the herd are better tamed this way.
 Primum omnium spatiosum stabulum praeparetur, ubi
domitor facile versari, et unde degredi sine periculo possit.
Ante stabulum nullae angustiae sint, sed aut campus aut via late
patens, ut, cum producentur iuvenci, liberum habeant excursum,
ne pavidi aut arboribus aut obiacenti cuilibet rei se implicent
 First of all a roomy stable should be prepared, so
the tamer could move round easily and go out without danger.
In front of the stable there must be no obstacles, but a field
or a widely accessible way, because when the steers are taken
out, they must be free to run without getting themselves for
fear into trees or whatever object they might find before, getting
 In stabulo sint ampla praesepia, supraque transversi
asseres in modum iugorum a terra septem pedibus elati configantur,
ad quos religari possint iuvenci. Diem deinde, quo domituram
auspiceris, liberum a tempestatibus et a religionibus matutinum
eligito; cannabinisque funibus cornua iuvencorum ligato.
 In the stable there should be broad mangers and above
them should be fixed cross posts, placed like yokes, seven feet
tall from the ground, to which steers could be tied. Then chose
the morning you're beginning the taming to be propitious as to
weather and to religious rites, and tie the steers' horns with
 Sed laquei, quibus capulabuntur, lanatis pellibus
involuti sint, ne tenerae frontes sub cornua laedantur. Cum deinde
buculos comprehenderis, perducito ad stabulum, et ad stipites
religato ita ut exiguum laxamenti habeant, distentque inter se
aliquanto spatio, ne in colluctatione alter alteri noceat. Si
nimis asperi erunt, patere unum diem noctemque desaeviant. Simul
atque iras contuderint, mane producantur, ita ut a tergo complures,
qui sequuntur, retinaculis eos contineant, et unus cum clava
salignea procedens modicis ictibus subinde impetus eorum coerceat.
 But the halters you use to tie the steers must be
wrapped up with wooly leather, so their tender foreheads under
the horns aren't scraped off. When, once you tied the steers
you lead them to the stable, fasten them to the posts so that
they haven't too much play and there's enough space between them,
so they don't hurt one another fighting. If they are too much
wild, let them free to calm down one day and one night long,
and as soon as their wrath is assuaged, next morning lead them
outside, with many people behind to follow and to hold them pulling
bridles, and one with a willow-wood club preceding and seldom
checking its impetuosity by taps.
 Sin autem placidi et quieti boves erunt, vel eodem
die, quo alligaveris, ante vesperum licebit producere, et docere
per mille passus composite ac sine pavore ambulare; cum domum
perduxeris, arcte ad stipites religato, ita ne capite moveri
possint. Tum demum ad alligatos boves neque a posteriore parte
neque a latere, sed adversus, placide et cum quadam vocis adulatione
venito, ut accedentem consuescant aspicere. Deinde nares perfricato,
ut hominem discant odorari.
 If instead the oxen are meek and quiet, even in the
same day you tied them first, before night you can take them
out and teach them to walk quietly and fearless for one thousand
steps; then as you take them back into the stable, bind them
fast to the posts, so that they can't move their head; then finally
you'll advance towards them, not from behind nor from the side,
but from the front, quietly and with a somehow flattening voice,
so they get accustomed to see somebody approaching. Then rub
their nostrils so they'll learn to smell the man.
 Mox etiam convenit tota tergora et tractare et respergere
mero, quo familiariores bubulco fiant; ventri quoque et sub femina
manum subicere, ne ad eiusmodi tactum postmodum pavescant, et
ut ricini qui plerumque feminibus inhaerent, eximantur. Idque
cum fit, a latere domitor stare debet, ne calce contingi possit.
 Then it's convenient to rub and spray their backs
with wine, to make them accustomed to the ploughman and it's
better you put your hand under their bellies and thighs, both
because they aren't frightened when later touched this way, both
to take off the ticks, which cling mainly to thighs. When the
tamer makes this must stay beside the ox, so he cannot be reached
by a kick.
 Post haec diductis malis educito linguam, totumque
eorum palatum sale defricato, libralesque offas in praesulsae
adipis liquamine tinctas in gulam demittito, ac vini singulos
sextarios per cornu faucibus infundito; nam per haec blandimenta
triduo fere mansuescunt, iugumque quarto die accipiunt, cui ramus
illigatus temonis vice traicitur; interdum et pondus aliquod
iniungitur, ut maiore nisu laboris exploretur patientia.
 Once done this, after having opened wide their jaws,
pull their tongue out and rub all the mouth and palate with salt,
then thrust in their throat one libra mouthfuls of very salty
fat and pour inside them with a horn a sextarius (0.5 l) of wine
each. Since with this mild deal in about three days they'll be
tame the fourth day they'll accept the yoke, in which a tree
branch will be fixed, making it pass through instead of the shaft;
sometimes a weight is added, so a harder effort puts to the test
the endurance against labour of the ox.
 Post eiusmodi experimenta vacuo plostro subiungendi
et paulatim longius cum oneribus producendi sunt. Sic perdomiti
mox ad aratrum instituantur, sed in subacto agro, ne statim difficultatem
operis reformident neve adhuc tenera colla dura proscissione
terrae contundant. Quemadmodum autem bubulcus in arando bovem
instituat, primo praecepi volumine. Curandum ne in domitura bos
calce aut cornu quemquam contingat. Nam nisi haec caveantur,
numquam eiusmodi vitia quamvis subacto eximi poterunt.
 After the trials made this way
it must yoke them to an empty cart and step by step they must
go out pulling weights for longer times. Once they are tamed
so,it must accustom them to the plough, but on an already ploughed
field, so that they don't get at once scared by the difficulties
of the work and don't get their tender necks hurted in the hard
land ploughing. In
the first volume I already taught how the ploughman must train
the ox to the ploughing. It must take care that during the taming
nobody be reached by a kick or a butt: in fact if you don't pay
attention to it, you'll never amend this vice, even in subdued
 Verum ista sic agenda praecipimus, si veteranum pecus
non aderit. Nam si aderit, expeditior tutiorque ratio domandi
est, quam nos in nostris agris sequimur. Nam ubi plostro aut
aratro iuvencum consuescimus, ex domitis bubus valentissimum
eundemque placidissimo cum indomito iungimus. Is et procurrentem
retrahit et cunctantem producit.
 Indeed these things we taught
must not be really done if you have tamed oxen: in this case
the taming proceeding is faster and safer, as we do in our estates.
In fact when we accustom an ox to the cart or the plough, we
yoke the sturdiest and quietest of the tame oxen with a still
untamed one, so that if the latter goes too fast, the former
restrains it and if it loiters, the other pulls ahead.
 Si vero non pigeat iugum fabricare, quo tres iungantur,
hac machinatione consequemur, ut etiam contumaces boves gravissima
opera non recusent. Nam ubi piger iuvencus medius inter duos
veteranos iungitur, aratroque iniuncto terram moliri cogitur,
nulla est imperium respuendi facultas. Sive enim efferatus prosilit,
duorum arbitrio inhibetur; seu consistit, duobus gradientibus
etiam invitus obsequitur; seu conatur decumbere, a valentioribus
sublevatus trahitur; propter quae undique necessitate contumaciam
deponit, et ad patientiam laboris paucissimis verberibus perducitur.
 Then, if you don't mind building
a yoke to which three animals could be fastened, with this device
you could achieve that neither the unruly ox can reject the heaviest
work: indeed when a lazy ox is tied between two veterans, as
the plough is driven into the soft soil, it is constrained and
have no chance to refuse the orders. If then it rushes ahead
raging, it's stopped by the will of the other two, if instead
it stops must give up, even unwillingly, to the advancing two,
hoisted and dragged by those stronger ones, therefore necessarily
it renounces completely to its obstinacy and is induced to endure
work with very few lashes.
 Est etiam post domituram mollioris generis bos, qui
decumbit in sulco; eum non saevitia, sed ratione censeo emendandum.
Nam qui stimulis aut ignibus aliisque tormentis id vitium eximi
melius iudicant, verae rationis ignari sunt, quoniam pervicax
contumacia plerumque saevientem fatigat. Propter quod utilius
est citra corporis vexationem fame potius et siti cubitorem bovem
emendare. Nam eum vehementius afficiunt naturalia desideria quam
 There is also a kind of weaker oxen which, even after
the taming, lie down in the furrow; I think they must be amended
not by roughness, but by care; indeed those who judge it's better
to correct this vice by the goad or fire or other pains don't
know the right way, since the obstinate stubbornness generally
bores the raging trainer. Therefore it's better to amend the
oxen used to lay down by means of hunger and thirst, rather than
with physical abuses.
 Itaque si bos decubuit, utilissimum est pedes eius
sic vinculis obligari, ne aut insistere aut progredi aut pasci
possit. Quo facto inedia et siti compulsus deponit ignaviam;
quae tamen rarissima est in pecore vernaculo; longeque omnis
bos indigena melior est quam peregrinus. Nam neque aquae nec
pabuli nec caeli mutatione tentatur, neque infestatur condicione
regionis, sicut ille, qui ex planis et campestribus locis in
montana et aspera perductus est, vel ex montanis in campestria.
 Therefore, if an ox lies down, it's more useful to
tie its legs with belts, so that it couldn't stand up or walk,
and then pasture; this way, driven by hunger and thirst, it will
give up its indolence. Nevertheless it seldom happens to farm-born
livestock, and all native oxen are far better than foreign ones:
indeed they're not annoyed by changes of water, food or climate,
and neither disturbed by the conformation of the region, like
those which from level and meadowy areas are taken in harsh mountain
places, or from the mountain are taken into flat lands.
 Itaque etiam, cum cogimur ex longinquo boves arcessere,
curandum est, ut in similia patriis locis traducantur. Item custodiendum
est, ne in comparatione vel statura vel viribus impar cum valentiore
iungatur. Nam utraque res inferiori celeriter affert exitium.
 Then, if we are forced to get our oxen from afar,
we must pay attention they are introduced in lands close to their
native ones. Moreover it must take care not to yoke together
a weaker ox with a stronger one by frame, height or strength:
indeed these things take rapidly the weaker to the ruin.
 Mores huius pecudis probabiles habentur, qui sunt
propiores placidis quam concitatis, sed non inertes; qui sunt
verentes plagarum et acclamationum, sed fiducia virium nec auditu
nec visu pavidi, nec ad ingredienda flumina aut pontes formidolosi;
multi cibi [edaces] verum in eo conficiendo lenti. Nam hi melius
concoquunt, ideoque robora corporum citra maciem conservant,
qui ex commodo, quam qui festinanter mandunt.
 It's deemed the most appreciated qualities of this
livestock are being quiet rather than raging, but yet not numb,
obeying to beating and yells, but trusting in their own strenght
and not fearing sounds and sights and not afraid to cross rivers
or bridges, being hungry of several foods, but yet slow in consuming
them: indeed those who chew in the proper time digest better
and therefore keep better their body energy, without slimming,
compared to the hurrying ones.
 Sed tam vitium est bubulci pinguem quam exilem bovem
reddere; habilis enim et modica corporatura pecoris operarii
debet esse, nervisque et musculis robusta, non adipibus obesa,
ut nec sui tergoris mole nec labore operis degravetur. Sed quoniam
quae sequenda sunt in emendis domandisque bubus tradidimus, tutelam
 However for a ploughman making
oxen slim or fatten is a fault; indeed body frame of draught
livestock must be agile and measured, strong as to tendons and
muscles, not too fat, so that they are not loaded both by their
own hindquarters' bulk and by the work's labour. After having
exposed the rules to follow when buying or taming oxen, now we'll
be teaching how to tend them.
 Boves calore sub divo, frigoribus intra tectum manere
oportet. Itaque hibernae stabulationi eorum praeparanda sunt
stramenta, quae mense Augusto intra dies triginta sublatae messis
praecisa in acervum exstrui debent. Horum desectio cum pecori
tum agro est utilis: liberantur arva sentibus, qui aestivo tempore
per Caniculae ortum recisi plerumque radicitus intereunt, et
stramenta pecori subiecta plurimum stercoris efficiunt. Haec
cum ita curaverimus, tum et omne genus pabuli praeparabimus,
dabimusque operam, ne penuria cibi maciescat pecus.
 It must keep oxen under the
sky when it's warm, and under shelter when it's cold. Therefore
it must get straw ready for their winter stalling, piling it
up in heaps, within thirty days from harvest. The straw reaping
is useful both for livestock and land: the fields are rid of
brambles, which generally die from their roots when cut
in summertime, when Sirius rises, and the straw used as a litter
for livestock provides plenty of manure. Once we took care of
all these things, then we'll get ready any kind of fodder and
engage so that the scarcity of food doesn't make livestock slim.
 Boves autem recte pascendi non una ratio est. Nam
si ubertas regionis viride pabulum subministrat, nemo dubitat
quin id genus cibi ceteris praeponendum sit; quod tamen nisi
riguis aut roscidis locis non contingit. Itaque in iis ipsis
vel maximum commodum est, quod sufficit una opera duobus iugis,
quae eodem die alterna temporum vice vel arant vel pascuntur.
 There is not just one way to
make cattle graze well. In fact if the fertility of the region
supplies green forage, nobody doubts that such type of food should
be preferred, however you find it just in humid or well-watered
places. And therefore in such places there is also a great advantage,
because a day of work is enough for two pairs of oxen, which
alternatively plow or graze.
 Siccioribus agris ad praesepia boves alendi sunt,
quibus pro condicione regionum cibi praebentur; eosque nemo dubitat,
quin optimi sint vicia in fascem ligata et cicercula itemque
pratense foenum. Minus commode tuemur armentum paleis, quae ubique
et quibusdam regionibus solae praesidio sunt. Eae probantur maxime
ex milio, tum ex ordeo, mox etiam ex tritico. Sed iumentis iusta
operum reddentibus ordeum praeter has praebetur.
 In the droughty zones cattle should be fed at the
manger, and according to the traits of the place, it will be
supplied foods, of which nobody doubts
that the best ones are vetch tied in bundles and chickling, likewise
meadow hay. With the straw we will feed the cattle less well,
that is found everywhere and in some regions is the only aid.
Between the straws the best ones are that of millet, then of
barley, and then of wheat, but the oxen who give work it must
give also some barley corn, in addition to the straw.
 Bubus autem pro temporibus anni pabula dispensantur.
Ianuario mense [singulis] fresi et aqua macerati ervi quaternos
sextarios mistos paleis dare convenit, vel lupini macerati modios,
vel cicerculae maceratae semodios, et super haec affatim paleas.
Licet etiam, si sit leguminum inopia, et eluta et siccata vinacia,
quae de lora eximuntur, cum paleis miscere.
 Moreover feed the oxen with forage according to the
seasons of the year. In the month of January
give every head 4 sextaries (8.7 kg) of bitter vetch milled and
macerated in water mixed to straw, or a modius (8.7 kg) of macerated
lupins or a half modius (4.3 kg) of macerated chickling and,
beyond to all this, plenty of straw. It is also possible, if
there is lack of Leguminosae, to add to the straw some washed
and dried wine marc, extracted from thin wine.
 Nec dubium [est] quin ea longe melius cum suis folliculis,
ante quam eluantur, praeberi possint. Nam et cibi et vini vires
habent, nitidumque et hilare et corpulentum pecus faciunt. Si
grano abstinemus, frondis aridae corbis pabulatorius modiorum
viginti sufficit, vel foeni pondo triginta, vel sine modo viridis
laurea et ilignea frondes. Et his, si regionis copia permittat,
glans adicitur; quae nisi ad satietatem detur, scabiem parit.
Potest etiam si proventus vilitatem facit, semodius fabae fresae
praeberi. Mense Februario plerumque eadem sunt cibaria.
 There is no doubt that marc is much better if given
with all its peels, before washing it, this way it keeps all
the energy both of the wine and of the food and makes cattle
glossy, in a good humor and well fed. in a good humor and well
fed. If we want to save wheat, a basket of forage of twenty modii (175 kg) of dried
foliage is enough or even thirty pounds of hay or laurel and
holm-oak leaves without limits, and to all this, if the fertility
of the region allows it, we can add acorns, that if are not given
to satiety, makes the scabies come. We also can, if the abundance
generates a good price, give an half modium
(4.3 kg) of broad-beans. In the
month of February the forages are more or less the same ones.
 Martio et Aprili debet ad foeni pondus adici, quia
terra proscinditur; sat autem erit pondo quadragena singulis
dari. Ab Idibus Aprilis usque in Idus Iunias viride pabulum recte
secatur; potest etiam in Kal. iulias frigidioribus locis idem
praestari; a quo tempore in Kal. Novembres tota aestate et deinde
autumno satientur fronde; quae tamen ante est utilis, quam cum
maturuerit vel imbribus vel assiduis roribus; probaturque maxime
ulmea, post fraxinea, et ab hac populnea. Ultimae sunt ilignea
et quernea et laurea; sed eae post aestatem necessariae deficientibus
 In March and April it must increase
the weight of the hay, because we plough the soil, but forty
pounds (12 kg) more per head will be enough. From half April
to half June it will be better to cut the green forage down;
in the colder places we can also feed the cattle with it until
the beginning of July. From this season until the beginning of
November, along all the summer and then in the autumn, they should
be statisfied by leaves, which anyway are not useful before they
ripen by the rain or the frequent dews; the elm tree leaves are
considered the most suitable, followed by the ash-tree leaves
and then the poplar leaves. The last ones are those of ilex,
oak and laurel, which are necessary after the summer, when there's
lack of the others.
 Possunt etiam folia ficulnea probe dari, si sit eorum
copia, aut stringere arbores expediat. Ilignea tamen [vel] melior
est quernea, sed eius generis, quod spinas non habet. Nam id
quoque, uti iuniperus, respuitur a pecore propter aculeos. Novembri
mense ac Decembri per sementem quantum appetit bos, tantum praebendum
est; plerumque tamen sufficiunt singulis modii glandis et paleae
ad satietatem datae, vel lupini macerati modii, vel ervi aqua
conspersi, sextarii VII permisti paleis, vel cicerculae similiter
conspersae sextarii XII misti paleis, vel singuli modii vinaceorum,
si iis, ut supra dixi, large paleae adiciantur; vel si nihil
horum est, per se foeni pondo quadraginta.
 Fig leaves can also be usefully given, if there's
plenty of them or if it's needed to prune the trees. Ilex leaves
are better than oak ones, if they belong to the spineless kind,
or they will be refused by the livestock, just like the juniper.
In the months of November and December, when it must sow, it's
better to supply the ox all the food he asks for; generally a
modius (8.7 kg) of acorns is enough, with
straw given at pleasure, or even a modius of macerated lupins,
or seven sextaries (15 kg) of bitter vetch sprinkled with water
and mixed with straw, or twelve sextaries (26 kg) of in like
manner sprinkled chickling, mixed with straw, or a single modius
of wine marc if, as I said before, plenty of straw is added;
if instead noone of these foods are available, just give forty
pounds of hay.
 Sed non proderit cibis satiari pecora, nisi omnis
adhibeatur diligentia, ut salubri sint corpore, viresque conservent;
quae utraque custodiuntur large dato per triduum medicamento,
quod componitur pari pondere triti lupini, cupressique et cum
aqua nocte una sub divo habetur; idque quater anno fieri debet
ultimis temporibus veris, aestatis autumni, hiemis.
 But satiating the cattle will
not be useful, if you don't pay all your attention to keep their
bodies healthy and to preserve their strength, both these goals
are easily achieved giving them for three days a medicine, composed
by equal parts in weight of ground lupin and cypress berries,
soaked one night into water, to the open air; this medicine must
be given four times a year, at the end of the spring, summer,
autumn and winter.
 Saepe etiam languor et nausea discutitur, si integrum
gallinaceum crudum ovum ieiuni faucibus inseras, ac postero die
spicas ulpici vel alii cum vino conteras, et in naribus infundas;
neque haec tantum remedia salubritatem faciunt. Multi et largo
sale miscent pabula; quidam marrubium deterunt cum oleo et vino;
quidam porri fibras, alii grana thuris, alii sabinam herbam rutamque
cum mero diluunt. Eaque medicamenta potanda praebent.
 Often then you will be able
to fight nausea and fatigue if you will put in mouth of the fasted
animals a raw whole chicken egg, and if the day after you'll
mince stems of chive or cloves of garlic into wine, and you'll
pour it into the nostrils; But not only these remedies are good
for the health: many people add plenty of salt to the food, somebody
mince horehound with wine and oil; others pour leek stems or
incense grains or savin or rue into straight wine, and give these
medicines to drink to the cattle.
 Multi caulibus vitis albae et valvulis ervi bubus
medentur; nonnulli pellem serpentis obtritam cum vino miscent.
Est etiam remedio cum dulci vino tritum serpyllum, et concisa
et in aqua macerata scilla. Quae omnes praedictae potiones trium
heminarum singulis diebus per triduum datae alvum purgant, depulsisque
vitiis recreant vires.
 Many treat the oxen with stems
of old-man's beard and hulls of bitter vetch; some add to the
wine a minced snake skin. Also the sweet wine with minced wild
thyme is a remedy, likewise also the squill chipped and macerated
into water. All the potions above described, must be given for
three days, in the amount of three heminae (0,825 l) a day, they
purge the bowels and give again strength, sending the illness
 Maxime tamen habetur salutaris amurca, si tantundem
aquae misceas, et ea pecus insuescas; quae protinus dari non
potest, sed primo cibi asperguntur, deinde exigua portione medicatur
aqua, mox pari mensura mista datur ad saturitatem.
 But olive oil dregs are deemed
as very beneficial, if mixed in equal parts with water, and if
cattle becomes accustomed to it, inasmuch it cannot be given
at once, but must be shed before on the fodder, then added in
small doses to the water, finally added to an equal amount of
water and given at pleasure to the cattle.
 Nullo autem tempore et minime aestate utile est boves
in cursum concitari; nam ea res aut cit alvum, aut movet febrem.
Cavendum quoque est, ne ad praesepia sus aut gallina perrepat.
Nam hoc quod decidit, immistum pabulo, bubus affert necem; et
id praecipue, quod egerit sus aegra, pestilentiam facere valet.
Quae cum in gregem incidit, confestim mutandus est caeli status,
et in plures partes distributo pecore longinquae regiones petendae
sunt, atque ita segregandi a sanis morbidi, ne quis interveniat,
qui contagione ceteros labefaciat.
 In no season, and so much the less in summer, it must
spur on the oxen to run, since this moves the bowels and brings
the fever. It must also take care that pigs or hens do not infiltrate
themselves in the mangers, since the faeces that drop on the
fodder takes the oxen to death; and in particular what is dropped
by a sick sow is enough to infect. When this happens in the herd,
it must quickly go under new skies and towards far fields, where
the cattle must be distributed in several groups, and therefore
it must separate the sick animals from the healthy ones, so that
it doesn't happen that they can infect the others.
 Itaque cum ablegabuntur, in ea loca perducendi sunt,
quibus nullum impascitur pecus, ne adventu suo etiam illi tabem
afferant. Evincendi sunt autem quamvis pestiferi morbi, et exquisitis
remediis propulsandi. Tunc panacis et eryngii radices foeniculi
seminibus miscendae, et cum fricti ac moliti tritici farina candenti
aqua conspergendae, eoque medicamine salivandum aegrotum pecus.
 Therefore, when the animals
will be moved, it should lead them in zones in which other cattle
does not graze, in order to avoid that with their arrival they
carry the disease also to the others. But however awful can be
the diseases, it must defeat them and keep them away with proved
remedies. Then panacea and sea-holly roots must be mixed with
fennel seeds and added to toasted and milled wheat flour, then
sprinkled with hot water, and the sick animals must be cured
provoking the salivation with this medicine.
 Tunc paribus casiae myrrhaeque et thuris ponderibus,
ac tantumdem sanguinis marinae testudinis miscetur potio cum
vini veteris sextariis tribus, et ita per nares infunditur. Sed
ipsum medicamentum ponderis sescunciae divisum, portione aequa
per triduum cum vino dedisse sat erit. Praesens etiam remedium
cognovimus radiculae, quam pastores consiliginem vocant. Ea in
Marsis montibus plurima nascitur, omnique pecori maxime est salutaris.
Laeva manu effoditur ante solis ortum. Sic enim lecta maiorem
vim creditur habere.
 Then it must prepare a potion with cassia, myrrh and
incense in equal parts in weight, Then it must prepare a potion
with cassia, myrrh and incense in equal parts in weight and as
many of turtle blood and add it to three sextaries (1,6 l) of
old wine and it must pour it in the nostrils. But it will be
enough to give the same medicine, divided in parts of an ounce
and half (40 g), in equal amounts for three days. I know also
an effective remedy made with a root of an hellebore, that the
shepherds call consiligo. It grows very thick on the mounts of
the Marsica nd it's greatly wholesome for all the livestock.
It must uproot it with the left hand before the sun rises, because
it's believed that picked this way it has more force.
 Usus eius traditur talis. Aenea fibula pars auriculae
latissima circumscribitur, ita ut manante sanguine tamquam O
litterae ductus appareat orbiculus. Hoc et intrinsecus et ex
superiore parte auriculae cum factum est, media pars descripti
orbiculi eadem fibula transuitur, et facto foramini praedicta
radicula inseritur; quam cum recens plaga comprehendit, ita continet,
ut elabi non possit; in eam deinde auriculam omnis vis morbi
pestilensque virus elicitur, donec pars, quae fibula circumscripta
est, demortua excidit, et minimae partis iactura caput conservatur.
Cornelius Celsus etiam visci folia cum vino trita per nares infundere
iubet. Haec facienda, si gregatim pecora laborant; illa deinceps,
 Somebody recommends to use the remedy this way: trace
a circle with a bronze brooch on the wider part of the ear, so
that the blood that drips traces a round sign similar to an O.
When this has been made is in the inner and in the upper part
of the ear, it must pierce the center of the above mentioned
circle with the same brooch, and it must insert the cited root
in the hole that has been made, which, since the recent wound
tightens it, therefore it's held firm, so that it cannot slip
outside; therefore in that ear all the force of the disease and
the harmful humour are concentrate, until the part, which has
been circumscribed with the brooch, dies and falls down, and
with the loss of a minimal part, we save the life to an animal.
Cornelius Celsus recommends to pour in the nostrils also mistletoe
leaves ground into wine. These are the things to make if the
cattle is infected in a mass, the following remedies are instead
if a single animal is struck.
 Cruditatis signa sunt crebri ructus ac ventris sonitus,
fastidia cibi, nervorum intentio, hebetes oculi. Propter quae
bos neque ruminat neque lingua se deterget. Remedio erunt aquae
calidae duo congii, et mox triginta brassicae caules modice cocti
et ex aceto dati. Sed uno die abstinendum est alio cibo.
 The symptoms of an indigestion are frequent belching
and belly noises, refusal of the food, tension of the nerves,
dull eyes. Because of this the ox neither ruminate nor cleans
himself up by the tongue. The remedy will be two congii (6,5
l) of warm water, and then thirty shortly cooked cabbage stems
given with vinegar. But for one day it must keep the animal fasted
from other food.
 Quidam clausum intra tecta continent, ne pasci possit.
Tum lentisci oleastrique cacuminum pondo IIII, et libram mellis
una trita permiscent aquae congio, quam nocte una sub dio habent,
atque ita faucibus infundunt. Deinde interposita hora macerati
ervi quattuor libras obiciunt, aliaque potione prohibent.
 Some keeps the ox closed in the stable, so that he
cannot graze. Then they mix four pounds (1,3 kg) of lentisk and
oleaster tops and a pound (0,33 kg) of honey, ground together
with a congius (3,25 l) of water and kept for a night in the
open air, and they pour it in mouth the animal. Then, after one
hour, they put before him four pounds (1,3 kg) of milled bitter
vetch, and remove the other drinks.
 Hoc per triduum fieri debet, dum omnis causa languoris
discutiatur. Nam si neglecta cruditas est, et inflatio ventris
et intestinorum maior dolor insequitur, qui nec capere cibos
sinit, gemitus exprimit, locoque stare non patitur, saepe decumbere,
et agitare caput caudamque crebrius agere cogit. Manifestum remedium
est proximam clunibus partem caudae vinculo vehementer obstringere,
vinique sextarium cum olei hemina faucibus infundere atque ita
citatum per mille et quingentos passus agere.
 This must be made for three days, until every cause
of disease has been eliminated. In fact, if an indigestion is
neglected, then a swelling of the venter and a still greater
an intestinal pain come, which doesn't allow the animal to take
food, and wrings him wailings, doesn't leave it to stay on place,
and forces him to lay down frequently, to shake his head and
to move his tail more often than usual. The obvious remedy is
to strongly tighten with a rope the part of the tail which is
closer to the buttocks, to pour in mouth of the animal a sextarius
(0,54 l) of wine with a hemina (0,27 l) of oil and to make him
run for one thousand five hundred steps.
 Si dolor remanet, ungulas circumsecare, et uncta manu
per anum inserta fimum extrahere, rursusque agere currentem.
Si nec hoc profuit, tres caprifici aridi conteruntur, et cum
dodrante aquae calidae dantur. Ubi nec haec medicina processit,
myrti silvestris foliorum duae librae laevigantur, totidemque
sextarii calidae aquae misti per vas ligneum faucibus infunduntur.
Atque ita sub cauda sanguis emittitur. Qui cum satis profluxit,
inhibetur papyri ligamine. Tum concitate agitur pecus eo usque,
 If the pain remains, the hooves must be cut all around
and, greasing the hand, it must slip a hand into the anus and
extract the faeces, then making the animal run again. If neither
this method works, it must grind three dried wild figs and give
them to the ox with three quarters of congius (2,5 l) of warm
water. If neither this treatment helps, two pounds (650 g) of
wild myrtle leaves must be reduced to powder, then mixed with
two sextaries (1.1 l) of warm water, and by a wooden vase poured
in the throat of the animal. Finally the animal must be bleeded
under the tail, and as enough blood came out, it must plug with
a papyrus bandage. Then it must make the animal run until he
 Sunt et ante detractionem sanguinis illa remedia:
tribus heminis vini tres unciae pinsiti alii permiscentur, et
post eam potionem currere cogitur. Vel salis sextans cum cepis
decem conteritur, et admisto melle decocto collyria immittuntur
alvo, atque ita citatus bos agitur.
 Before bleeding other remedies can also be tried:
three heminae (0.81 l) of wine with three ounces (82 g) of pounded
garlic are mixed, and after giving this potion it must make the
animal run. Or instead it must grind a sextant (9 cl) of salt
with ten onions, then this is mixed with honey boiled for long
time and the ointment that comes out is introduced like an enema,
and then it must goad the animal to run fast.
 Ventris quoque et intestinorum
dolor sedatur visu nantium et maxime anatis. Quam si conspexerit,
cui intestinum dolet, celeriter tormento liberatur. Eadem anas
maiore profectu mulos et equinum genus conspectu suo sanat. Sed
interdum nulla prodest medicina. Sequitur torminum vitium, quorum
signum est cruenta et mucosa ventris proluvies.
 The venter and intestines pain
can be appeased with the sight of swimming animals, and above
all of ducks. In fact if an ox which has intestine pain sees
them, he will quickly be freed from his trouble. But the sight
of the same duck cures with greater effectiveness the mules and
horses. But sometimes no medicine works, and the dysentery comes,
whose marks are diarrhoea with blood and mucus.
 Remedio sunt cupressini quindecim coni, totidemque
gallae, et utrorumque ponderis vetustissimus caseus. Quibus in
unum tunsis admiscentur austeri vini quattuor sextarii, qui pari
mensura per quatriduum dispensati dantur; nec desint lentisci
myrtique et oleastri cacumina viridis. Alvus corpus ac vires
carpit, operique inutilem reddit. Quae cum accident, prohibendus
erit bos potione per triduum, primoque die cibo abstinendus.
 The remedy are fifteen cypress berries, the same number
of galls, and an equal weight of very ripe cheese. These ingredients
are pounded together and mixed to four sextaries (2,2 l) of sour
wine and, shared in parts of equal amount, are administered for
four days; and then lentisk, myrtle and oleaster tops must not
lack. The intestine pain makes the ox lose weight and removes
his forces and makes him unfit for work. When this happens, it
must to prevent the ox from drinking for three days, and in the
first day it must keep him also without food.
 Sed mox cacumina oleastri et arundinis, item baccae
lentisci et myrti dandae; nec potestas aquae nisi quam parcissimae
facienda est. Sunt qui tenerorum lauri foliorum libram et abrotonum
erraticum pari portione deterant cum aquae calidae duobus sextariis,
atque ita faucibus infundant, eademque pabula, ut supra diximus,
 But then tops of oleaster and reed must be given,
and also lentisk and myrtle berries; moreover water must not
be given, if not in a minimal amount. Somebody grinds a pound
(325 g) of laurel leaves and an equal amount of wild southernwood
with two sextaries (1.1 l) of warm water, and then pours it all
in the ox fauces, and then the same forage above described before
 Quidam vinaceorum duas libras torrefaciunt, et ita
conterunt cum totidem sextariis vini austeri, potandumque medicamentum
praebent, omnique alio humore prohibent, nec minus cacumina praedictarum
arborum obiciunt. Quod si neque ventris restiterit citata proluvies,
neque intestinorum ac ventris dolor, cibosque respuet, et praegravato
capite saepius quam consuevit, lacrymae ab oculis et pituita
a naribus profluent, usque ad ossa frons media uratur, auresque
ferro scindantur. Sed vulnera facta igne dum sanescunt, defricare
bubula urina convenit. Ac ferro rescissa melius pice et oleo
 Some toast two pounds (650 g) of grape-stones, and
then grind it with an equal amount of sour wine, and make the
animal drink this medicine, taking every other drink away from
him, and they give them tops of the trees above mentioned. If
all this will not stop the above described diarrhoea, and neither
the intestines and venter pain, and then the animal will refuse
the food, and will hang his head down more often than usual,
and tears from his eyes and mucus from his nostrils will come
out, the middle part of his forehead must be burnt until the
bone and his ears must be notched with a blade. Until the wounds
made with fire will not recover, it's better to rub them with
bovine urine. The cuts made with the iron are better cured with
pitch and oil.
 Solent etiam fastidia ciborum afferre vitiosa incrementa
linguae, quas ranas veterinarii vocant. Haec ferro reciduntur,
et sale cum alio pariter trito vulnera defricantur, donec lacessita
pituita decedit. Tum vino proluitur os, et interposito unius
horae spatio virides herbae et frondes dantur, dum facta ulcera
cicatrices ducant. Si neque ranae fuerint, neque alvus citata,
et nihilo minus cibos non appetet, proderit alium pinsitum cum
oleo per nares infundere, vel sale, vel cunila defricare fauces,
vel eandem partem alio tunso et hallecula linire. Sed haec si
solum fastidium est.
 Usually some difficulty in taking the food is also
provoked by those pathological excrescences of the tongue, which
the veterinarians call frogs. They must be cutted by a blade,
then it must rub the wound with salt and ground garlic in equal
amounts, until a mucus draining is provoked. Then the mouth must
be rinsed with wine, and after an hour tender grass and leaves
are given, which makes the cicatrization of the wounds easier.
If also not having neither the frogs, neither the diarrhoea already
described, the ox does not take any food, it will be useful introducing
in his nostrils some pounded garlic with oil, or rubbing his
mouth with salt or origan, or even greasing the same parts with
pounded garlic and small anchovies. But this works if the animal
is only slightly indisposed.
 Febricitanti bovi convenit abstineri cibo uno die,
postero deinde exiguum sanguinem ieiuno sub cauda emitti, atque
interposita hora modicae magnitudinis coctos brassicae coliculos
triginta ex oleo et garo salivati more demitti, eamque escam
per quinque dies ieiuno dari. Praeterea cacumina lentisci aut
oleae, vel tenerrimam quamque frondem, aut pampinos vitis obici;
tum etiam spongia labra detergeri, et aquam frigidam ter die
 An ox with the fever is better left without food for
a day, the following day then must be slightly bled under the
tail, and after an hour it must make the ox swallow as a salivary
thirty medium size cabbage stems cooked in oil and fermented
fish sauce, and this food is given to the fasted ox for five
days. After this tops of lentisk or olive tree must be given,
or leaft branches provided they are most tender, or even vine
leaves; then with a sponge the lips are cleaned up, and cold
water for three days is given as a drink.
 Quae medicina sub tecto fieri debet, nec ante sanitatem
bos emitti. Signa febricitantis manantes lacrimae, gravatum caput,
oculi compressi, fluidum salivis os, longior et cum quodam impedimento
tractus spiritus, interdum et cum gemitu.
 This medicine is administered in a covered place,
and the ox must not be sent out until he recovers. The symptoms
of the the fever in an animals are lacrimation, head hanging
down, hollow eyes, saliva dripping from the mouth, prolonged
breaths and somehow difficult, which every so often turn to groans.
 Recens tussis optime salivato farinae ordeaceae discutitur.
Interdum magis prosunt gramina concisa, et his admista fresa
faba. Lentis quoque valvulis exemptae, et minute molitae, miscentur
aquae calidae sextarii duo, factaque sorbitio per cornu infunditur.
Veterem tussim sanant duae librae hyssopi macerati sextariis
aquae tribus. Nam id medicamentum teritur, et cum lentis minute,
ut dixi, molitae sextariis quattuor more salivati datur, ac postea
aqua hyssopi per cornu infunditur.
 A recently appeared cough is fought very well with
a salivary of barley flour. Once in a while some ground cereals,
mixed to milled fava beans are better. Also lentils, provided
that are peeled from the hulls, and finely milled, mixed with
two sextaries (1.1 l) of warm water can be made swallow by means
of a horn. If the cough is of old date it recovers with two pounds
(1.6 l) of hyssop macerated in three sextaries (1.6 l) of water.
This medicine must be ground and, after mixing it with the finely
milled lentils, as seen before, four sextaries (2.2 l) of it
are given as a salivary, and then with a horn the water used
to macerate the hyssop is made the ox to swallow.
 Porri enim succus oleo, vel ipsa fibra cum ordeacea
farina contrita remedio est. Eiusdem radices diligenter lotae,
et cum farre triticeo pinsitae ieiunoque datae vetustissimam
tussim discutiunt. Facit idem pari mensura ervum sine valvulis
cum torrefacto ordeo molitum, et salivati more in fauces demissum.
 A good remedy is also leek juice with oil, or even
the solid part remaining of the same leek, ground with barley
flour. The leek roots accurately washed and pounded with wheat
flour and then fed the fasted animal, will send the oldest cough
away. The same effect is obtained with bitter vetch without hulls
milled with an equal amount of toasted barley, and poured in
the throat as a salivary.
 Suppuratio melius ferro rescinditur, quam medicamento.
Expressa deinde sanie sinus ipse, qui eam continebat, calida
bubula urina eluitur, atque ita linamentis pice liquida et oleo
imbutis colligatur. Vel si colligari ea pars non potest, lamina
candenti sevum caprinum aut bubulum instillatur. Quidam, cum
vitiosam partem inusserunt, urina vetere eluunt, atque ita aequis
ponderibus incocta pice liquida cum vetere axungia linunt.
 An abscess, rather than be cured with medicines, is
better lanced with a blade. Then, once the pus that it contained
has been squeezed out, it must rinse with warm bovine urine,
and wrap it with bandages soaked in liquid pitch and oil. Or
even, if the sick part cannot be wrapped, with an incandescent
blade they make drip goat or beef fat on it. Somebody, after
having cauterized the sick part, then rinse it with old urine,
and grease it with liquid pitch cooked with an equal amount of
 Sanguis demissus in pedes claudicationem affert.
Quod cum accidit, statim ungula inspicitur. Tactus autem fervorem
demonstrat; nec bos vitiatam partem vehementius premi patitur.
Sed si sanguis adhuc supra ungulas in cruribus est, fricatione
assidua discutitur; vel cum ea nihil profuit, scarificatione
demitur. At si iam in ungulis est, inter duos ungues cultello
 If some blood accumulates
in the feet, it causes lameness. When this happens, it must at
once check the hoof: actually it's warm as you touch it, and
the ox can't stand that the sick part is pressed. Anyway, if
the blood still stands in the leg, above the hoof, it must be
removed massaging it for a long time. However, if this treatment
doesn't work, the blood can be removed by an incision. If the
blood already is in the hooves, then it must delicately lance
with a knife between the two fingers.
 Postea linamenta sale atque aceto imbuta applicantur,
ac solea spartea pes induitur, maximeque datur opera, ne bos
in aquam pedem mittat, et ut sicce stabuletur. Hic idem sanguis
nisi emissus fuerit, famicem creabit, qui si suppuraverit, tarde
percurabitur; ac primum ferro circumcisus et expurgatus, deinde
pannis aceto et sale et oleo madentibus inculcatis, mox axungia
vetere et sevo hircino pari pondere decoctis, ad sanitatem perducitur.
 After this is must apply bandages soaked in salt and
vinegar, and wrap up the foot in a broom sole, and above all
it must take care that the ox doesn't put the foot into the water
and be stabled in a dry place. If the blood will not go out,
it will create a haematoma, which as suppurates, recovers very
slowly; then first of all it must cut it all around with a blade
and make it purge, then it must wrap it tight with a cloth soaked
in vinegar, salt and oil, and the wound will recover with old
lard and goat fat cooked and in equal amount.
 Si sanguis in inferiore parte ungulae est, extrema
pars ipsius unguis ad vivum resecatur, et ita emittitur, ac linamentis
pes involutus spartea munitur. Mediam ungulam ab inferiore parte
non expedit aperire, nisi eo loco iam suppuratio facta est. Si
dolore nervorum claudicat, oleo et sale genua poplitesque et
crura confricanda sunt, donec sanetur.
 If the blood stagnates in the lower part of the hoof,
the tip of the same hoof will be trimmed to the quick, and this
way the blood will come out; then the foot will be bundled up
with linen bandages and it will be protected with a broom sole.
It's better not to open the inner hoof from the lower part, unless
a suppuration has already been formed. If the ox limps by a tendons
pain, it must rub his knees, fetlocks and legs with oil and salt,
until it recovers.
 Si genua intumuerint, calido aceto fovenda sunt, et
lini semen aut milium detritum conspersumque aqua mulsa imponendum;
spongia quoque ferventi aqua imbuta et expressa litaque melle
recte genibus applicatur, ac fasciis circumdatur. Quod si tumori
subest aliquis humor, fermentum vel farina ordeacea ex passo
aut aqua mulsa decocta imponitur; et cum maturuerit suppuratio,
rescinditur ferro, eaque emissa, ut supra docuimus, linamentis
 If the knees swell, a compress with warm vinegar must
be made, and then it must put on it linen seeds or ground millet
dipped into water mixed with honey; it's also good to apply on
the knees sponges soaked in hot water and then wrung, and held
in place with bandages. If under the swelling there is some liquid,
it must apply fermented barley or barley flour cooked into raisin
wine or into water with honey; and when the abscess comes to
a head, it must open it up with a blade, and after making the
pus come out, it must cure with the bandages we previously described.
 Possunt etiam, ut Cornelius Celsus praecipit, lilii
radix aut scilla cum sale, vel sanguinalis herba, quam polygonon
Graeci appellant, vel marrubium ferro reclusa sanare. Fere autem
omnis dolor corporis, si sine vulnere est, recens melius fomentis
discutitur; vetus uritur, et supra ustum butyrum vel caprina
 It's also possible to heal the abscesses opened up
by the blade, as Cornelius Celsus teaches, with lily roots or
squill with salt, or with the knotgrass, that the Greeks call
polygonon, or with horehound. Nearly every pain of the
body then, if it does not depend on wounds, is better fought
with poultices, if it's recent, or must be burnt if it's old,
and over the burn butter or goat fat must be dripped.
 Scabies extenuatur trito alio defricto; eademque remedio
curatur rabiosae canis vel lupi morsus, qui tamen et ipse imposito
vulneri vetere salsamento aeque bene sanatur. Et ad scabiem praesentior
alia medicina est. Cunila bubula et sulphur conteruntur, admistaque
amurca cum oleo atque aceto incoquuntur. Deinde tepefactis scissum
alumen tritum spargitur. Id medicamentum candente sole illitum
 Scabies vanishes if rubbed with ground garlic; and
with the same remedy the bite of the rabid dog or of the wolf
is cured, even if it recovers well the same if on the wound is
placed some old brine. And for the scabies there is another more
effective medicine. Dittany and sulfur must be ground together
and after mixing them with olive oil dregs, they are cooked with
oil and vinegar. Then it must let it cool down and strew it with
milled alum in pieces. This medicine has the higher effectiveness
when smeared in bright sunshine.
 Ulceribus gallae tritae remedio sunt. Nec minus succus
marrubii cum fuligine. Est et infesta pestis bubulo pecori; coriaginem
rustici appellant, cum pellis ita tergori adhaeret, ut apprehensa
manibus deduci a costis non possit. Ea res non aliter accidit,
quam si bos aut ex languore aliquo ad maciem perductus est, aut
sudans in opere faciendo refrixit, aut si sub onere pluvia madefactus
 Minced galls are a remedy for the ulcerations. And
horehound juice with soot are not less useful. There is also
a dangerous cattle disease, that the breeders call coriago, by
which the skin sticks so much to the body, that when grasped
by the hands cannot be taken off the ribs. This sickness occurs
only for some very defined reasons: he has been made emaciated
for some disease, or has catched cold while he was sweaty by
the work, or even he has been drenched by the rain while he was
 Quae quoniam perniciosa sunt, custodiendum est, ut
cum ab onere boves redierint, adhuc aestuantes anhelantesque
vino aspergantur, et offae adipis faucibus eorum inserantur.
Quod si praedictum vitium inhaeserit, proderit decoquere laurum
et ea calda fovere terga, multoque oleo et vino confestim subigere,
ac per omnes partes apprehendere et attrahere pellem. Idque optime
fit sub dio, sole fervente. Quidam fraces vino et adipi commiscent,
eoque medicamento post fomenta praedicta utuntur.
 Since this disease is pernicious, it must take care
that, as the oxen come back from the work, still hot and panting,
they are sprinkled of wine, and mouthfuls of lard are put in
their throat. But if the oxen already have been struck by the
above described sickness, it will be useful to make a laurel
decoction and, while it is still warm, make poultices on their
back, and keep massaging them with much oil and wine, then seizing
and pulling the skin in any point. It's better to do all this
in the open air, under the bright sun. Some mix olive susks with
wine and lard, and use this medicine after making the poultices
 Est etiam illa gravis pernicies, cum pulmones exulcerantur.
Inde tussis et macies et ad ultimum phthisis invadit. Quae ne
mortem afferant, radix consiliginis ita, ut supra docuimus, perforatae
auriculae inseritur, tum porri succus instar heminae pari olei
mensurae miscetur, et cum vini sextario potandus datur diebus
 Another serious disease is also that, in which lungs
ulcerate. Then cough, emaciation and finally phthisis burst in.
In order not to allow that all this takes to the death, in a
hole pierced in an ear lugwort roots must be inserted, as we
previously described, then approximately a hemina (0,27 l) of
leak juice with an equal amount of oil must be mixed, and for
several days with a sextary (0,54 l) of wine must be given to
 Interdum et tumor palati cibos respuit, crebrumque
suspirium facit, et hanc speciem praebet, ut bos in latus pendere
videatur. Ferro palatum opus est sauciare, ut sanguis profluat,
et exemptum valvulis ervum maceratum viridemque frondem, vel
aliud molle pabulum, dum sanetur praebere.
 Sometimes they refuse the food also for a palate swelling,
that makes the breath gasping, and creates such an aspect for
which the ox seems to lean by a side. The palate must be lanced
with a blade, in order to let the blood out, and macerated bitter
vetch peeled from the hulls and green leaves or other tender
forage must be fed, until the ox recovers.
 Si in opere collum contuderit, praestantissimum est
remedium sanguis de aure emissus; aut si id factum non erit,
herba, quae vocatur avia, cum sale trite et imposita. Si cervix
mota et deiecta est, considerabimus quam in partem declinet,
et ex diversa auricula sanguinem detrahemus. Ea porro vena, quae
in aure videtur esse amplissima, sarmento prius verberatur. Deinde
cum ad ictum intumuit, cultello solvitur; et postero die iterum
ex eodem loco sanguis emittitur, ac biduo ab opere datur vacatio.
Tertio deinde die levis iniungitur labor, et paulatim ad iusta
 If during the work the ox neck was bruised, the most
effective remedy is bleeding an ear, or if this will not be made,
some groundsel, that grass which is called avia, grinded
with salt must be put on it. If the neck displaced or lowered
itself, it must check by which part it hangs, and then bleed
the ear of the opposite side. Then first of all it must whip
by a twig that vein that appears much in relief in the ear. Then
when it swells because of the blows, it must be lanced with a
knife, and the day after bleeded again in the same point, and
then for two days the ox must be exempted from the work. Then
the third day a little light work must be imposed, and little
by little it must take him again to the normal charge.
 Quod si cervix in neutram partem deiecta est, mediaque
intumuit, ex utraque auricula sanguis emittitur. Qui cum intra
triduum, cum bos vitium cepit, emissus non est, intumescit collum,
nervique tenduntur, et inde nata durities iugum non patitur.
 And if the neck does not lean by one or other side,
but it is swollen in the middle, it must bleed both ears. If
not bleeded within three days from the appearance of the ailment,
the neck swells, the tendons shrink and a hardening arises which
not allow the ox to stand the yoke.
 Tali vitio comperimus aureum esse medicamentum ex
pice liquida et bubula medulla et hircino sevo et vetere oleo
aequis ponderibus compositum atque incoctum. Hac compositione
sic utendum est. Cum disiungitur ab opere, in ea piscina, ex
qua bibit, tumor cervicis aqua madefactus subigitur, praedictoque
medicamento defricatur et illinitur.
 For this ailment we have learned that there is an
very good medicine made with liquid pitch, beef marrow, goat
fat and old oil mixed in equal amounts and boiled. This compound
must be used this way: when after the job the yoke is removed
from the ox, and in the same basin in which he drinks, the swelling
is soaked and massaged, and then it is rubbed and smeared with
the medicine above described.
 Si ex toto propter cervicis tumorem iugum recuset,
paucis diebus requies ab opere danda est. Tum cervix aqua frigida
defricanda et spuma argenti illinenda est. Celsus quidem tumenti
cervici herbam, quae vocatur avia, ut supra dixi, contundi et
imponi iubet. Clavorum, qui fere cervicem infestant, minor molestia
est; nam facile oleo per ardentem lucernam instillato curantur.
 If by the neck swelling the ox refuses at all the
yoke, few days of rest from the work must be given. Then the
neck is rubbed with cold water and smeared with litharge. Celsus
just prescribes to pound and apply on the swollen neck that grass
called avia, as I have said before. The trouble given
by the bulges that commonly plague the neck is lesser, in fact
they can be easily cured making drip oil from a burning oil-lamp.
 Potior tamen ratio est custodiendi, ne nascantur,
neve colla calvescant, quae non aliter glabra fiunt, nisi cum
sudore aut pluvia cervix in opere madefacta est. Itaque cum id
accidit, lateritio trito prius quam disiungantur colla conspergi
oportet; deinde cum id siccum erit, subinde oleo imbui.
 The better solution is anyway to take care that these
bulges don't arise, and the neck don't loose hair, and the neck
does not become hairless for no other reason, but because it
has been soaked of sweat and rain during the work. And when this
happens, on the neck ground bricks must be scattered, before
detaching the ox from the yoke; then, as it has been dried up,
it must be impregnated with oil.
 Si talum aut ungulam vomer laeserit, picem duram et
axungiam cum sulphura et lana succida involutam candente ferro
supra vulnus inurito. Quod idem remedium optime facit exempta
stirpe, si forte surculum calcaverit, aut acuta testa vel lapide
ungulam pertuderit; quae tamen si altius vulnerata est, latius
ferro circumciditur, et ita inuritur, ut supra praecepi; deinde
spartea calceata per triduum suffuso aceto curatur.
 If the ploughshare hurts the pastern or the hoof,
solid pitch and lard wrapped in greasy wool with sulfur must
be melted on the wound with an incandescent iron. This same remedy
works very well if, extirpating a shrub, by chance he has treaded
upon a branch, or a hoof has been hurt by a broken brick or a
pebble; if then the hoof has been hurt more upwards, it must
widen all around the cut with a blade, and then melt on it the
stuffs I have mentioned above; then, after putting a broom sole,
it must cure it bathing it with vinegar for three days.
 Item si vomer crus sauciarit, marina lactuca, quam
Graeci tithymalon vocant, admisto sale imponitur. Subtriti pedes
eluuntur calefacta bubula urina; deinde fasce sarmentorum incenso,
cum iam ignis in favillam recidit, ferventibus cineribus cogitur
insistere, ac pice liquida cum oleo vel axungia cornua eius linuntur.
Minus tamen claudicabunt armenta, si opere disiunctis multa frigida
laventur pedes; et deinde suffragines, coronae, ac discrimen
ipsum, quo divisa est bovis ungula, vetere axungia defricentur.
 In the same way if the ploughshare hurts a leg, it
must put on it some sea lectuce, that the Greeks call tithymalon,
mixed to salt. If the feet are impaired downside, it must wash
them with heated cattle urine; then it must set a vine-shoots
faggot on fire, and as soon as the flame turns into sparks, the
ox must be forced to walk on burning ashes, and the corneous
part of the hoof must be smeared with liquid pitch with oil or
lard. The ox then will limp less, if as soon as untied from the
yoke, the feet will be washed with plenty of cold water, and
then the fetlock, the coronet and the sulcus that parts the two
hooves of the ox will be rubbed with lard.
 Saepe etiam vel gravitate longi laboris, vel [cum]
in proscindendo, aut duriori solo, aut obviae radici obluctatus,
convellit armos. Quod cum accidit, et prioribus cruribus sanguis
mittendus est; si dextrum armum laesit, in sinistro; si laevum,
in dextro; si vehementius utrumque vitiavit, item in posterioribus
cruribus venae solventur.
 Oftentime also for the heaviness of a long work, or
during the plowing, or by the hardness of the soil, or pulling
against a root found on the way, the ox sprains his shoulder.
When this happens, if right shoulder is injured, the left fore
leg must be bled, if instead the left shoulder is impaired, it
must bleed the right limb; if by a harder strain both shoulders
are hurt, the veins in hind limbs must be opened.
 Praefractis cornibus linteola sale atque aceto et
oleo imbuta superponuntur, ligatisque per triduum eadem infunduntur.
Quarto demum axungia pari pondere cum pice liquida, et cortice
pineo, levigata imponitur. Et ad ultimum cum iam cicatricem ducunt,
fuligo infricatur. Solent etiam neglecta ulcera scatere vermibus;
qui si mane perfunduntur aqua frigida, rigore contracti decidunt,
vel si hac ratione non possunt eximi, marrubium aut porrum conteritur,
et admisto sale imponitur. Id celeriter necat praedicta animalia.
 On the broken horns a bandage soaked into salt, vinegar
and oil must be put on, then horns are tied and soaked for three
days. Finally, in the fourth day, lard and liquid pitch in equal
part are put over, with pulverized pine bark. Finally, as the
horns have already made a scar, rub them with soot. It happens
also that from the neglected wounds worms come out, which if
in the morning are bathed with cold water, they shrink and fall.
If they cannot be removed this way, just grind some horehound
or leak, then stir them with salt and put it on the wound. This
treatment quickly kills the above mentioned animals.
 Sed expurgatis ulceribus confestim adhibenda sunt
linamenta cum pice et oleo vetereque axungia, et extra vulnera
eodem medicamento circumlinienda, ne infestentur a muscis, quae,
ubi ulceribus insederunt, vermes creant.
 But, once the wounds are purged, bandages with pitch,
oil and old lard must be soon applied, and it must smear all
around the same medicine even outside the wound, so that this
be not infested by flies, which, if stand on the wounds, make
the worms come.
 Est etiam mortiferus serpentis ictus, est et minorum
animalium noxium virus. Nam et vipera et caecilia saepe cum in
pascuo bos improvide supercubuit, lacessita onere morsum imprimit.
Musque araneus, quem Graeci mygalen appellant, quamvis exiguis
dentibus non exiguam pestem molitur. Venena viperae depellit
super scarificationem ferro factam herba, quam vocant personatam,
trita et cum sale imposita.
 Also the snake bite is lethal, and the poison of smaller
animals is injurious. In fact often the viper and the slow-worm,
as in the pasture an ox incautiously lay over them, disturbed
by the weight, sinks a bite. And the shrew, that the Greeks call
migale, even having small teeth, produces a not weak damage.
The viper's poison must be removed making an incision with a
blade and putting on it the grass called personata (the
burdock), ground and mixed with salt.
 Plus etiam eiusdem radix contusa prodest, vel si montanum
trifolium invenitur, quod confragosis locis efficacissimum nascitur,
odoris gravis, neque absimilis bitumini, et idcirco Graeci eam
asphalton appellant; nostri autem propter figuram vocant acutum
trifolium; nam longis et hirsutis foliis viret, caulemque robustiorem
facit, quam pratense.
 The pounded roots of the same plant does even more
well, as well as, if can be found, the mountain clover, which
is more effective if it grows in steep places, and that has a
strong smell, not dissimilar from that of bitumen, and that's
why the Greeks call it asphalton; instead we call it sharp
clover, for its shape: in fact it has long and hairy leaves,
and its stem is sturdier than that of red clover.
 Huius herbae succus vino mistus infunditur faucibus,
atque ipsa folia cum sale trita malagmatis more, scarificationi
intenditur; vel si hanc herbam viridem tempus anni negat, semina
eius collecta et levigata cum vino dantur potanda, radicesque
cum suo caulae tritae, atque hordeaceae farinae et sali commistae
ex aqua mulsa scarificationi superponuntur.
 The juice of this grass, added to wine, is poured
into the mouth of the animal, and the same leaves, ground and
added to salt, are smeared as a poultice on the incision; or,
when this grass is not available fresh because of the season,
its seeds, collected, pulverized and mixed with wine, are given
as a drink, and the roots ground with the stems and barley flour,
mixed with water and honey, are placed on the incision.
 Est etiam praesens remedium, si conteras fraxini tenera
cacumina quinque librarum, cum totidem vini et duobus sextariis
olei, expressumque succum faucibus infundas; itemque cacumina
eiusdem arboris cum sale trita laesae parti superponas. Caeciliae
morsus tumorem, suppurationem molitur. Idem facit etiam muris
aranei. Sed illius sanatur noxa subula aenea, si locum laesum
compungas, cretaque cimolia ex aceto linas.
 Another effective remedy is to grind five pounds (1600
g) of tender ash-tree tops, and the juice that comes out, mixed
with the same amount of wine and two sestaries (1 liter) of oil,
is poured in the animal's jaws; the ground tops of the same tree
added with salt are put also on the wounded part. The bite of
the slow-worm causes swelling and suppuration. The same happens
with the bite of the shrew. But the bite of the former is cured
stinging the injured part with a copper blade, smearing then
it with Cimulus clay with vinegar.
 Mus perniciem, quam intulit, suo corpore luit; nam
animal ipsum oleo mersum necatur, et cum imputruit, conteritur,
eaque medicamine morsus muris aranei linitur. Vel si id non adest,
tumorque ostendit iniuriam dentium, cuminum conteritur, eique
adicitur exiguum picis liquidae et axungiae, ut lentorem malagmatis
 The evil made by the shrew is recovered by its same
body: indeed it must kill this animal drowning it oil and, as
it is decomposed, it must be ground and this medicine must be
smeared on the bite of the shrew. Or, if the shrew is not found,
and a swelling demonstrates the damage made by the teeth, it
must grind some cumin, some liquid pitch and lard is added, to
make the poultice thick.
 Id impositum pernicem commovet. Vel si antequam tumor
discutiatur, in suppurationem convertitur, optimum est ignea
lamina conversionem resecare, et quicquid vitiosi est, inurere,
atque ita liquida pice cum oleo linire. Solet etiam ipsum animal
creta figulari circumdari; quae cum siccata est, collo boum suspenditur.
Ea res innoxium pecus a morsu muris aranei praebet.
 Putting this mixture on the bite, it is healed. Or
even, if, before being cured, the swelling suppurates, the better
thing is to lance the injury with a red-hot blade, and to burn
all the rotten parts, smearing them with liquid pitch with oil.
Often the same shrew is wrapped up with pottery clay, and when
it dries, it must hang it to the neck of the ox. This makes cattle
immune from the bite of the shrew.
 Oculorum vitia plerumque melle sanantur. Nam sive
intumuerunt, aqua mulsa triticea farina conspergitur et imponitur;
sive album in oculo est, montanus sal Hispanus vel Ammoniacus
vel etiam Cappadocus, minute tritus et immistus melli vitium
extenuat. Facit idem trita sepiae testa, et per fistulam ter
die oculo inspirata. Facit et radix, quam Graeci silphion vocant,
vulgus autem nostra consuetudine laserpitium appellant.
 The eyes ailments cured mainly with honey. In fact,
when they swell, wheat flour is soaked into water and honey,
and then applied on them; if in the eye there is some white,
some mountain salt, either Spanish, or ammoniac or from Cappadocia,
finely ground and mixed with honey reduces the trouble. A cuttle-bone
ground and blown in the eye with a cane for three days has the
same effect. It does well also the root that the Greeks call
silphion, while by a popular custom we call it laserpitium.
 Huius quantocumque ponderi decima pars salis ammoniaci
adicitur, eaque pariter trita oculo similiter infunduntur, vel
eadem radix contusa et cum oleo lentisci inuncta vitium expurgat.
Epiphoram supprimit polenta conspersa mulsa aqua, et in supercilia
genasque imposita, pastinacae quoque agrestis semina, et succus
armoraceae, cum melle laevigata oculorum sedant dolorem.
 To any amounts in weight of this weed, the tenth part
of ammoniac salt can be added, and after having ground them in
the same way, they must be poured in the eye as seen before,
or the same root, pounded and greased with lentisk oil, eliminates
the ailment. A barleymeal porridge soaked into water and honey
and put on the eyebrow and in the hollow of the orbit, get the
ox rid of lachrymation, and also the seeds of wild parsnip, and
radish juice, diluted with honey, calms the eye-ache.
 Sed quotiescumque mel aliusve succus remediis adhibetur,
circumliniendus erit oculus pice liquida cum oleo, ne a muscis
infestetur. Nam et ad dulcedinem mellis aliorumque medicamentorum
non hae solae sed et apes advolant.
 But every time that honey or some other sweet juice
will be used as a remedy, it must smear all around the eye with
liquid pitch with oil, so that it will not be infested by flies.
Indeed surely the sweetness of the honey and other medicines
makes not only the flies, but also the bees to fly on.
 Magnam etiam perniciem saepe affert hirudo hausta
cum aqua. Ea adhaerens faucibus sanguinem ducit et incremento
suo transitum cibis praecludit. Si tam difficili loco est, ut
manu trahi non possit, fistulam vel arundinem inserito, et ita
calidum oleum infundito; nam eo contactum animal confestim decedit.
 Often also a leech, swallowed with the water, makes
a great damage. This, clinging with its mouth, sucks the blood,
and swelling itself, blocks the food transit. If it is sticked
in a place where it is difficult to tear it away with the hands,
it must put a small reed or a cane inside the mouth, and pour
in warm oil; indeed in contact with it the animal dies immediately.
 Potest etiam per fistulam deusti cimicis nidor immitti;
qui ubi superponitur igni, fumum emittit, et conceptum nidorem
fistula usque ad hirundinem perfert; isque nidor depellit haerentem.
Si tamen vel stomachum vel intestinum tenet, calido aceto per
cornu infuso necatur. Has medicinas quamvis bubus adhibendas
praeceperim, posse tamen ex his plurima etiam maiori pecori convenire
nihil dubium est.
 Another remedy is to make the smoke of a burnt stinking
bug get in with a cane: indeed this insect, when is put on the
fire, produces smoke, that is collected with a cane and made
it reach the leech, and this forces the parasite to drop down;
if instead it clung in the stomach or the intestine, it must
be killed making the ox swallow warm vinegar using a horn as
a funnel. These medicines, that I advised for the oxen above
all, can however for the greater part be effective without any
doubt also for any livestock.
 Sed et machina fabricanda est, qua clausa, iumenta
bovesque curentur, ut et tutus accessus ad pecudem medenti sit,
nec in ipsa curatione quadrupes reluctando remedia respuat. Est
autem talis machinae forma. Roboreis axibus compingitur solum,
quod habet in longitudinem pedes novem, et in latitudinem pars
prior dupondium semissem, pars posterior quattuor pedes.
 Anyway a crush must also be built in which horses
and oxen could be cured, shutting them up inside, so that who
cures them can approach the livestock keeping sheltered, and
the quadruped during the same cure cannot refuse the medicines.
The shape of this crush is this: the bottom is made of oak boards,
it is nine feet long (2,70 m) and is two feet and half (75 cm)
wide in the front part, and four feet (1,20 m) in the back part.
 Huic solo septenum pedum stipites recti ab utroque
latere quaterni applicantur. Ii autem in ipsis quattuor angulis
affixi sunt, omnesque transversis sex temonibus quasi vacerrae
inter se ligantur, ita ut a posteriore parte, quae latior est,
velut in caveam quadrupes possit induci, nec exire alia parte
prohibentibus adversis axiculis. Primis autem duobus statuminibus
imponitur firmum iugum, ad quod iumenta capistrantur, vel boum
cornua religantur. Ubi potest etiam numella fabricari, ut inserto
capite descendentibus per foramina regulis cervix catenetur.
 To this bottom four vertical posts seven feet high
(2.10 m) are applied in every side. These posts are then rammed
at the same four corners, and they all are fixed one another
by six transversal poles, like a palissade, so that the quadruped
can be made to go in like in a cage by the back side, which is
wider, and cannot go out by the other part, blocked by the small
boards put in front. Over the first two posts a solid yoke is
then placed, to which the horses can be haltered up, or the oxen
tied by the horns. Here a head bail can also be built, so that,
once the head is inserted there, the neck can be tied to the
vertical bars, by means of the holes they bear.
 Ceterum corpus laqueatum et distentum temonibus obligatur,
immotumque medentis arbitrio est expositum. Haec ipsa machina
communis erit omnium maiorum quadrupedum.
 The rest of the body, tied and stretched out, is fastened
to the transversal poles and is immobilized, at disposal of who
medicates. This same crush will be commonly used for all the
large size livestock.
 Quoniam de bubus satis praecepimus, opportune de tauris
vaccisque dicemus. Tauros maxime membris amplissimis, moribus
placidis, media aetate probandos censeo. Cetera fere omnia eadem
in his observabimus, quae in bubus eligendis. Neque enim alio
distat bonus taurus a castrato, nisi quod huic torva facies est,
vegetior aspectus, breviora cornua, torosior cervix, et ita vasta,
ut sit maxima portio corporis, venter paulo substrictior, qui
magis rectus et ad ineundas feminas habilis sit.
 Since we have given enough suggestions about the oxen,
it is appropriate to speak about the bulls and the cows. I deem
that above all must be chosen the bulls of great proportions,
quiet character and middle-aged. With regard to nearly all the
other characteristics we will follow the same indications given
for the choice of the oxen. In fact a good bull does not differ
from a steer except because it has a threatening attitude, a
more vigorous aspect, shorter horns, a brawnier neck, wide enough
to be the wider part of the body, a somehow narrower venter which,
being straighter, is fit to the mating with the cows.
 Vaccae quoque probantur altissimae formae longaeque,
maximis uteris, frontibus latissimis, oculis nigris et patentibus,
cornibus venustis et levibus et nigrantibus, pilosis auribus,
compressis malis, palearibus et caudis amplissimis, ungulis modicis,
et modicis cruribus. Cetera quoque fere eadem in feminis, quae
et in maribus, desiderantur, et praecipue ut sint novellae, quoniam,
cum excesserunt annos decem, foetibus inutiles sunt. Rursus minores
bimis iniri non oportet.
 Also the cows are appreciated if they have a very
tall and long frame, with a wide venter, very large forehead,
wide black eyes, graced, light and black horns, hairy ears, matching
jaws, very large dewlap and tail, light hooves and not too much
big legs. The other traits sought in the females are nearly the
same ones sought in the males, and above all that they are young
since, once they exceed the ten years of age, they became unfit
to calve. Instead it's not suitable to make the heifers under
two years of age to couple.
 Si ante tamen conceperint, partum earum removeri placet,
ac per triduum, ne laborent, ubera exprimi, postea mulctra prohiberi.
 If in spite of this they get however pregnant, it
will be better to remove their calf, and for three days squeeze
their udder, so that they do not suffer, but then don't milk
 Sed et curandum est omnibus annis [in hoc] aeque in
reliquis gregibus pecoris, ut delectus habeatur. Nam et enixae
et vetustae quae gignere desierunt, summovendae sunt, et utique
taurae, quae locum fecundarum occupant, ablegandae vel aratro
domandae, quoniam laboris et operis non minus quam iuvenci, propter
uteri sterilitatem, patientes sunt.
 Anyway it must take care that every year also in the
other herds of livestock a selection be made. In fact it must
cull both the cows exausted by the calvings, both the old ones,
that ceased calving, and above all the barren heifers, that steal
the place of the fertile ones, must be culled or trained to pull
the plow, since they stand well the labour and the work in the
fields not less than the oxen, because of their sterility.
 Eiusmodi armentum maritima et aprica hiberna desiderat;
aestate opacissima nemorum ac montium alta magis quam plana pascua.
Nam melius nemoribus herbidis et frutetis et carectis, * * *
. . . quoniam siccis ac lapidosis locis durantur ungulae. Nec
tam fluvios rivosque desiderat, quam lacus manu factos; quoniam
et fluvialis aqua, quae fere frigidior est, partum abigit, et
caelestis iucundior est. Omnes tamen externi frigoris tolerantior
equino armento vacca est, ideoque facile sub dio hibernat.
 The herd needs to winter in sunny places near the
sea, deeply shaded in summer by their forests and better in high
mountain than on lowland meadows. In fact it is better in grassy
forests and shrubs and sedges, * * *. . . since the hooves are
hardened on barren and pebbly lands. And they do not have much
need of rivers and streams, but rather of smalls lakes purposely
dug, since the water of the rivers, that often is colder, provokes
abortions, while the rain-water is pleasant. The cows are then
much more tolerant to the external cold than the equine livestock,
and for this reason they winter more easily in the open air.
 Sed laxo spatio consepta facienda sunt, ne in angustiis
conceptum altera alterius elidat, et ut invalida fortioris ictus
effugiat. Stabula sunt optima saxo aut glarea strata, non incommoda
tamen etiam sabulosa: illa, quod imbres respuant; haec, quod
celeriter exsorbeant transmittantque. Sed utraque devexa sint,
ut humorem effundant; spectentque ad meridiem, ut facile siccentur,
et frigidis ventis non sint obnoxia.
 Then fencings with a wide room must be made, because
in narrow spaces, a cow could crush the fetus of another one,
and the weaker cows can escape the blows of stronger ones. The
better stables are those with stone or gravel floor, but even
sandy ones are not bad: the former because reject the water,
the latter because absorb and let the fluids drain fast. But
both types must have a slope, so that the liquids can run down;
moreover they must be oriented south, because they dry up easy,
and are not exposed to the cold winds.
 Levis autem cura pascui est. Nam ut laetior herba
consurgat, fere ultimo tempore aestatis incenditur. Ea res et
teneriora pabula recreat, et sentibus ustis fruticem surrecturum
in altitudinem compescit. Ipsis vero corporibus affert salubritatem
iuxta conseptum saxis et canalibus sal superiectus, ad quem saturae
pabulo libenter recurrunt, cum pastorali signo quasi receptui
 The cares for the pasture
instead are easier. In factin order to make the grass grow luxuriant
again, nearly at the end of the summer it must set it on fire.
This practice makes pastures regrow tender, and once the brambles
are burnt, limits the growth in height of the shrubs. The physical
health of the same cattle is then ensured throwing close to the
fencings, on stones and in the troughs some salt, to which the
beasts, satiated by the pasture, will resort with pleasure, when
the stockman's sign resounds almost to recall them in the stable.
 Nam id quoque semper crepusculo fieri debet, ut ad
sonum buccinae pecus, si quod in silvis substiterit, septa repetere
consuescat. Sic enim recognosci grex poterit, numerusque constare,
si velut ex militari disciplina intra stabulorum castra manserint.
Sed non eadem in tauros exercentur imperia, qui freti viribus
per nemora vagantur, liberosque egressus et reditus habent, nec
revocantur nisi ad coitus feminarum.
 This must be always made at twilight, so that at the
sound of the bugle the beasts, if by chance they loitered in
the forests, get accustomed to return in the stable. In fact
in this way we will be able to control the herd and count the
heads if, with a nearly military discipline, they will remain
in the stables like in a barracks. But the same discipline cannot
be exercised on the bulls, that wander through the woods, proud
of their force, and have free exit and free entrance, and that
are not recalled except in order to mate themselves with the
 Ex his, qui quadrimis minores sunt, maioresque quam
duodecim annorum, prohibentur admissura: illi, quoniam quasi
puerili aetate seminandis armentis parum idonei habentur; his,
quia senio sunt effeti. Mense Iulio feminae maribus plerumque
permittendae, ut eo tempore conceptos proximo vere adultis iam
 Between them, those under four years of age or over
the age of twelve, are excluded from the mating: the former,
being nearly in an infantile age, are considered scarsely fit
to inseminate the herd; the latter, being tired out by their
old age. The access of the females to the bull must be allowed
mainly in the month of July, so that the calves, if conceived
in that period, find in the following spring the pastures already
 Nam decem mensibus ventrem proferunt, neque ex imperio
magistri, sed sua sponte marem patiuntur. Atque in id fere quod
dixi tempus, naturalia congruunt desideria, quoniam satietate
verni pabuli pecudes exhilaratae lasciviunt in venerem, quam
si aut femina recusat, aut non appetit taurus, eadem rationem,
qua fastidientibus equis mox praecipiemus, elicitur cupiditas
odore genitalium admoto naribus.
 In fact they carry on the pregnancy for ten months,
and accept the male not because ordered by the master, but for
their own will. And just in the season that I mentioned, they
satisfy their natural desire since, being cheered it because
they are satiated bt the spring pastures, take delight in sex,
but if a female refuses it, or it does not appreciate the bull,
with the same method that later on we will advise for refusing
horses, the desire is induced approaching to their nostrils the
smell of the genital organs.
 Sed et pabulum circa tempus admissurae subtrahitur
feminis, ne eas steriles reddat nimia corporis obesitas; et tauris
adicitur, quo fortius ineant. Unumque marem quindecim vaccis
sufficere abunde est. Qui ubi iuvencam supervenit, certis signis
comprehendere licet, quem sexum generaverit, quoniam, si parte
dextra desiluit, marem seminasse manifestum est; si laeva, feminam.
Id tamen verum esse non aliter apparet, quam si post unum coitum
forda non admittit taurum; quod et ipsum raro accidit.
 But around the period of mating part of the fodder
must be taken away to the females, in order to avoid that their
excessive body fatness makes them sterile; the fodder instead
must be increased to the bulls, so that they mount with more
energy. A bull is more than enough for fifteen cows. As the bull
mounts the heifer, by certain signs it is possible to understand
the sex of the calf that was generated, since, if after the mount
he comes down from the right side, it means that a male was generated;
if he comes down from the left, a female was generated. But this
is comes out true only in case the cow after the first mating
don't accept the bull anymore, but this happens very rarely.
 Nam quamvis plena foetu non expletur libidine. Adeo
ultra naturae terminos etiam in pecudibus plurimum pollent blandae
voluptatis illecebrae! Sed non dubium est, ubi pabuli sit laetitia,
posse omnibus annis partum educari; at ubi penuria est, alternis
submitti; quod maxime in operariis vaccis fieri placet, ut et
vituli annui temporis spatio lacte satientur, nec forda simul
operis et uteri gravetur onere. Quae cum partum edidit, nisi
cibis fulta est, quamvis bona nutrix, labore fatigata nato subtrahit
 In fact although the cow bears the fetus, she does
not exaust her desire. To such an extent also in the cattle the
allurements of the sweet lust influence to the maximum degree,
also beyond the limits of nature! But there is no doubt that,
where there is plenty of food, they can be raised making them
calve every year; where instead there is lack of food, they are
made calve in alternate years. It is better to do it above all
for the working cows, so that the calves can be satiated with
milk for a year, so that the cow it is not burdened at the same
time by the weight of the work and by the pregnancy. When the
cow calves, if she is not supported by the food, also being a
good mother, tired by the job, whitdraws food to the calf.
 Itaque et foetae cytisus viridis et torrefactum ordeum,
maceratumque ervum praebetur, et tener vitulus torrido molitoque
milio, et permixto cum lacte salivatur. Melius etiam in hos usus
Altinae vaccae parantur, quos eius regionis incolae Cevas appellant.
Eae sunt humilis staturae, lactis abundantes, propter quod remotis
earum foetibus, generosum pecus alienis educatur uberibus; vel
si hoc praesidium non adest, faba fresa, et vinum recte tolerat,
idque praecipue in magnis gregibus fieri oportet.
 Therefore, once the cows have calved, they are fed
green laburnum and toasted barley and ground bitter vetch, and
to the younger calves milled and toasted millet is given, mixed
with milk. But for this use it is also better to buy cows from
Altinum, than the inhabitants of that region call cevae.
They have a low height and are great milk producers, and therefore,
after being separated from their calves, the good breed cattle
is nourished by udders of alien origin; or if this aid is not
available, they accept well also milled broad beans and wine,
and this must be mainly done in the greater herds.
 Solent autem vitulis nocere lumbrici, qui fere nascuntur
cruditatibus. Itaque moderandum est, ut bene concoquant; aut
si iam tali vitio laborant, lupini semicrudi conteruntur, et
offae salivati more faucibus ingeruntur. Potest etiam cum arida
fico et ervo conteri herba Santonica, et formata in offam, sicut
salivatum demitti. Facit idem axungiae pars una tribus partibus
hyssopi permista. Marrubii quoque succus et porri valet eiusmodi
 Usually then the calves suffer of worms, than often
derive from indigestible foods. Therefore it must be made so
that they digest well; or, if they already suffer of this ailment,
it must grind some half-cooked lupins, and mouthfuls of this
are put in the throat as a salivary. It is also possible to mill
wormseed grass with a dry fig and bitter vetch, and making small
mouthfuls of it, making them swallow it as a salivary. It does
also good a part of old lard mixed to three parts of hyssop.
In order to kill these parasites does also good the juice of
horehound and leek.
 Castrare vitulos Mago censet, dum adhuc teneri sunt;
neque id ferro facere, sed fissa ferula comprimere testiculos
et paulatim confringere. Idque optimum genus castrationum putat,
quod adhibetur aetati tenere sine vulnere.
 Mago thinks that the calves must be castrated until
they are still small; and it must not be made with an iron, but
the testicles must be compressed with a splitted cane, crushing
them little by little. He also deems that this is the better
way to castrate, because it can be used on calves in tender age
without hurting them.
 Nam ubi iam induruit, melius bimus quam anniculus
castratur. Idque facere vere vel autumno luna decrescente praecipit,
vitulumque ad machinam deligare; deinde prius quam ferrum admoveas,
duabus angustis ligneis regulis veluti forcipibus apprehendere
testium nervos, quos Graeci krematheras ab eo appellant, quod
ex illis genitalis partes dependent. Comprehensos deinde testes
ferro reserare, et expressos ita recidere, ut extrema pars eorum
adhaerens praedictis nervis relinquatur.
 Because, if the calf has already hardened himself,
it is better to castrate him at the age of two years rather than
of one year. He advises to make it in spring or autumn with moon
on the wane, tying the calves to a crush; then, before applying
the iron, with two tightened wooden bars, used as tongs, he advises
to seize the testicles' legaments, that the Greeks call krematheras,
by the fact that the genital organs hang from them. Then after
having seized the testicles, they must be pulled outside with
the iron and, having torn them out this way, they must be cut
off, taking care that at their ends the above mentioned legaments
 Nam hoc modo nec eruptione sanguinis periclitatur
iuvencus, nec in totum effeminatur adempta omni virilitate; formamque
servat maris cum generandi vim deposuit; quam tamen ipsam non
protinus amittit. Nam si patiaris eum a recenti curatione feminam
inire, constat ex eo posse generari. Sed minime id permittendum,
ne profluvio sanguinis intereat. Verum vulnera eius sarmenticio
cinere cum argenti spuma linenda sunt, abstinendusque eo die
ab humore, et exiguo cibo alendus.
 And therefore this way the steers are not endangered
by the loss of blood, and neither is weakened by the loss of
all his virility, and moreover keeps the aspect of a male although
if he has abandoned the power to fertilize, but this faculty
is not lost immediately. In fact if you allow him to mount when
the castration is still recent, it is well-known that he can
generate. But this must not be allowed in any way, in order to
avoid that the animal dies for the loss of blood. Instead it
must rub his wound with vine-shoots ash with litharge, not giving
him liquids in the day of the castration and give him scanty
food to eat.
 Sequenti triduo velut aeger cacuminibus arborum et
desecto viridi pabulo oblectandus, prohibendusque multa potione.
Placet etiam pice liquida et cinere cum exiguo oleo ulcera ipsa
post triduum linere, quo et celerius cicatricem ducant, nec a
muscis infestentur. Hactenus de bubus dixisse abunde est.
 In the three following days, like if he were sick,
he must be strengthened with shouts of trees and cut up tender
grass, and he must be prevented from drinking too much. It is
also opportune to grease after three days the wound with liquid
pitch and ash with a few oil, that they make the scar to form
itself more quickly, and prevent that the wound is infested by
the flies. To this point we have said enough about cattle.