Antifascist Resistenza in Montesacro

The Rome neighborhood of Montesacro and the next suburb of Val Melaina played an important role in the Resistenza, the Italian resistance against fascism, both for their location, which at that time was definitely peripheral, and for their proximity to the University Town, which was a center of the action against fascist dictatorship and later, against Nazi occupation.
Fourteen residents of Montesacro and Val Melaina were murdered by the fascists because of their fight for the Liberation, four of them were under twenty years of age. Their names are remembered in a 1945 plaque in Via Maiella, near the corner with Corso Sempione, which has been restored after being set on fire and badly damaged by unidentified cowards in the night between 21
st and 22nd October 2004.
Seven of the fourteen martyrs are among the 335 victims of the Fosse Ardeatine massacre on 24
th March 1944: Ferdinando Agnini, Orlando Orlandi Posti, Vito Artale, Aldo Banzi, Renzo Piasco, Antonio Pistonesi and Filippo Rocchi. Six antifascists more were shot in Forte Bravetta: Riziero Fantini, Raffaele Riva, Antonio Feurra, Italo Grimaldi, Giovanni Andreozzi and Paul Lauffer, whereas the fourteenth, Amilcare Baldoni, was probably shot in the Sabina area, or he could be one of the unidentified victims of Fosse Ardeatine massacre.
At Val Melaina, near 31, via Scarpanto, a memorial plaque can be seen, placed on April 25
th, 1954, remembering the four fallen partisans of the suburb: Riziero Fantini, Antonio Pistonesi, Renzo Piasco and Filippo Rocchi. Even this plaque was damaged by unidentified cowards that in the night between 25th and 26th April 2019 had set on fire the wreath placed on the occasion of the anniversary of Liberation. The plaque was promptly restored on the occasion of Labour Day, on 1st May (see the news on la Repubblica.it).

The Resistenza at Montesacro
In 1942, in the last years of the fascist dictatorship, which had severely repressed the opposition, a restart of the struggle against the regime took place in Montesacro, seeing as key players the long-standing anti-fascists, often from other regions, who had taken shelter in a Rome in order to escape persecution in their home areas, and many of the workers who had built the neighborhood, which lived, among others, in quickly-built houses in via Nomentana on the corner of via Pietralata. Beside them the new anti-fascists arose, young workers, high school and college students, raised with the student protests.
The downfall of fascism, with Mussolini's capture on July 25
th, 1943, was welcomed with joy in Montesacro, as throughout Italy, as evidenced by Beppe Fenoglio, who in his 1959 novel Primavera di bellezza (Spring of Beauty), describes his experience of military service in the neighborhood, as a cadet of 34th infantry regiment of Livorno Division, on duty in the primary school Don Bosco, amongst citizens who destroyed the emblems of the fascist regime and praised the soldiers as opposed to the fascist militia and to the infamous PAI, the Italian Africa Police. The local group of Montesacro and Val Melaina subsection of fascist party were assaulted, the flags were burnt out and some documents were destroyed. In Val Melaina two red flags were hoisted on both sides of the main gate of the block.
The capture of Mussolini gave a new impulse to the fight against fascism, in which among the others, university students stood out; many of them were medical students and former high school students of Liceo Ginnasio Orazio, as Ferdinando Agnini, Gianni Corbi (who in 1968 became the editor of news magazine "L'Espresso"), Nicola Rainelli and Orlando Orlandi Posti, both members of Partito d'Azione, Franco Caccamo, Giorgio Lauchard, Girolamo Congedo, Mario Perugini, Lino Papio and Luciano Celli, linked by bonds of friendship even before devoting themselves to political struggle. The younger of these young men, had formed a group that used to meet at "il bell'orizzonte" ("the Beautiful Horizon") a small beach on river Aniene, close to Ponte Nomentano (link to my webpage on the bridge), also organizing a team of swimmers called “I caimani del bell’orizzonte" ("the Caimans of Beautiful Horizon").
Ferdinando Agnini, with 29 members of his group, almost all from Montesacro, on October 31
st 1943 founded ARSI, Associazione rivoluzionaria studentesca italiana (Revolutionary Association of Italian Students), which from November 18th, 1943 published the journal "La Nostra Lotta" ("Our Fight"), probably the first illegal student newsletter ever printed in Italy. The group, with distribution of pamphlets and commando actions, managed to interrupt the courses and exams of the faculties of medicine, science, law, literature, architecture and engineering.

After September 8th 1943 armistice, the Roman citizens hindered the access of nazi troops into the city, engaging on September 10th the battle of Porta S. Paolo. Between them, many Montesacro and Val Melaina residents, as Orlando Orlandi Posti, Renzo Piasco, Riziero Fantini, Giuseppe Gnasso, Corrado Fulli, Alvaro Vannucci, Mario Gambignani and Dario Funaro, 13 years old, who one month later was deported and killed in Auschwitz.
Sandro Pertini, Bruno Buozzi, Carla Capponi, Adriano Ossicini, Vasco Pratolini, Aldo Natoli, Giaime Pintor and many others also took part in the battle. On the occasion the Roman antifascist students, organized in OLU, Organizzazione Liberi Universitari (Free University Students Organization), attacked the campus barrack and seized a significant amount of weapons, (500 muskets and several cases of hand grenades), which were distributed to the fighters at Viminale, to San Lorenzo residents and to the partisan bands of Montesacro. Other weapons were left on the place because it was impossible to find means of transport to carry them. In the afternoon of September 10
th, after the capitulation of the serviceperson joining the Resistenza, the civilians kept on fighting, among other places at Prati Fiscali, near Montesacro, trying to close down via Salaria road, with Orlando Orlandi Pasti, Antonio Pastonesi, Nicola Rainelli, Franco Caccamo, Luciano Celli and Ennio Petrignani. After a two hours gunfight, the Montesacro partisans ran out of munitions and were forced to withdraw. In the clash probably three German soldiers were killed.

On October 16th a raid in the Ghetto of Rome occurred, and 1014 Jews were captured and deported to Nazi concentration camps, from which only sixteen of them came back. Actually 57% of the victims of the roundup were captured outside the Ghetto, also in Montesacro, where eight persons were captured, belonging to four families (Spizzichino), including Funaro, Di Veroli and Cacaurri. The thirteen year old Dario Funaro, above mentioned as a participant in the Battle of Porta San Paolo, was passing by Piazza Sempione while the Nazis were seizing his family into a truck and tried to intervene, but he himself was captured. Dario. his brother Adolfo, his father Leo, his mother Teresa Di Castro, his uncles Ada, Ettore and Giuditta Funaro and his grandmother Perla Cava were deported and killed at Auschwitz extermination camp.
On Wednesday January 16
th, 2019, at 10 am, in front of Funaro house, in 15, via Maiella, four Stolpersteine were laid to commemorate the four members of the family who lived there, with the participation of teachers and students of the classical and linguistic lyceum Aristofane, who have significantly contributed to keep the memory of this family overwhelmed by the Shoah.
During nazi occupation, in Montesacro, as in other areas of Rome the partisans attacked Nazi convoys, which were blocked piercing their tires by four-pointed nails, made by Cesare, a blacksmith near Nomentano bridge. Many acts of sabotage against the Nazis were performed on via Nomentana road (including against "campo dux" a nazi and fascist headquarters, placed between Montesacro, Settebagni and Castel Giubileo), in Prati Fiscali, San Basilio and Pietralata. On October 19
th a nazi motorcyclist was killed and German officers' cars were attacked with machine gun fire. The partisans also covered with arms the assaults of women at the ovens who supplied the bread to the Nazi occupiers.
On October 22
nd a group of partisans of Movimento Comunista d'Italia - Bandiera Rossa (Communist Movement of Italy - Red Flag, a movement dissident from Italian Communist Party), attacked Forte Tiburtino in order to seize weapons, clothes and food left by the Italian Army. The SS sentinels countered them and a gunfire occurred, causing several casualties, until 19 partisans were catched by the nazis and taken to trial in the Talenti estate villa. Ten of them were sentenced to death and shot at Ponte Mammolo, their names are: Orlando Accomasso, Lorenzo Ciocci, Mario De Marchis, Giuseppe Liberati, Angelo Salsa, Marco Santini, Mario Splendori and Vittorio Zini, of Movimento Comunista d'Italia, Andrea Chilastri, of Catholic Communists group, and Fausto Iannotti, who was passing accidentally through via Tiburtina. The other arrested anti-fascists were deported on January 4th in the Mauthausen concentration camp: Franco Venturelli, Pietro Gismondi, Mario Prestinicola, Alfredo Petrucci, Gaetano Nugnes, William Mattiozzi, Antonio Risi, Pietro Mancini, Carlo Maccione, along with Fernando Nuccitelli. Five of them died in Mauthausen.

On November 20th, at dusk, Rainelli, Palumbo, Palomba, Petrignani and Celli held up by the nails for three hours a column of 25 German lorries, on the military road San Nicola-Motte, which linked via Tiburtina to via Salaria. In mid December the same team, with the addition of Franco Caccamo, attacked near San Basilio a nazi patrol of 20 soldiers.
On December 14
th the partisans of Montesacro scored an attack to the "consul" of fascist militia Nussu, who lived in Via Maiella, and boasted that he could leave his body guard beyond Tazio bridge, and was instead hit by six bullets. Among other actions, the telephone cable that linked the Nazi headquarters of Monterotondo and Frascati, which was essential for the connection with the war front, was repeatedly cut out. This sabotage was performed, among others, by the fifteen-year-old Alvaro Vannucci, who also engaged himself of weapons procurement, in a deserted depot of Italian army, in front of Casal de' Pazzi.
Among other actions the young partisans performed leafleting, which was anyway dangerous and supported by armed comrades, like in cinema Rex at corso Trieste, where a reaction of fascist militant occurred. A further activity was rescuing the allied prisoners of war who escaped from nazist and fascist prison camps. Even very young boys undertook acts of sabotage, which, even being lesser, were still risky, as to shift the road signs placed by the Germans for their vehicles.
The weapons, hid in the Rainelli family cottage at 8, Via Monte Argentario, mainly came from the deserted barracks of 8
th Corps of Engineers unit, at Batteria Nomentana. The Caymans swam across Aniene river in the depths of winter to carry these weapons to Montesacro.
Another group of resistance fighters of the neighborhood was formed by members of illegal Communist Party (PCI), including Giorgio Onofri, Riziero Fantini and Mario Menichetti, a mason from Trastevere recently moved to Val Melaina, already sentenced in 1925 by the fascist regime to four years of confinement in Ustica island, and Vittorio Mallozzi who had fought and had been wounded with the International Brigades during Spanish Civil War.
The young anti-fascists of the neighborhood gathered at Rainelli cottage: the family had moved to the freed Southern Italy, following the head of the family, an official of the Ministry of Transport, while young Nicola, a twenty-two years old medical student, stayed in Rome with his sister Lina, and used his family villa as headquarters for the group of young partisans, including Ferdinando Agnini, Orlando Orlandi Posti, Antonio Pistonesi, Renzo Piasco, Paul Lauffer, Franco and Sara Caccamo, Amorina Lombardi, Luciano Celli, Roberto Croce and many others.
On Sunday, October 27
th, 1943 the first sweep in Rome took place, in order to capture dodgers to the fascist draft, to be sent to hard labour in Germany. More than a thousand men of Montesacro, Tufello, Val Melaina and Pietralata were taken and forced to walk for 6 kilometers towards Mentana until Casal Coazzo, in San Cleto area, then 346 of them were sent to hard labour
The nazis had established one of their headquarters in primary school Don Bosco, and in a cottage in via Nomentana, in front of via Levanna, a former depot for the nearby "Campo dux", a temporary jail for the arrested antifascists was made, from which they were later on transferred elsewhere.
The news of repression which had already taken place in Oslo and Prague universities, convinced the anti-fascist students of the need to join forces to protect the opponents from Nazi-fascist persecution. Therefore, on January 2
nd 1944 afternoon, in an apartment in 112, via Flavia, students of the faculties of Engineering, Law and Statistics, together with several teachers, ARSI members Corbi and Agnini, along with students of PCI (Italian Communist Party), Movement of Catholic Communists, PSIUP and Action Party, gave birth to the CSA, Comitato Studentesco di Agitazione (Student Committee of Agitation), leaded by young Communist Maurizio Ferrara, responsible or the Technical commitee, also including Gianni Corbi and Ferdinando Agnini (ARSI), Dario Puccini and Carlo Lizzani (PCI, Italian Communist Party), Paolo Moruzzi and Carlo Franzinetti (MCC, Catholic Communists Movement), Giorgio Lauchard and Giorgio Conforto (PSIUP, Italian Socialist Party), Matteo Cirenei, Pier Luigi Sagona and Luigi Silvestri (P d’A, Action Party) and some Social Christians. The first action of ARSI was a protest at the inauguration ceremony of the academic year, in the presence of fascist and nazist authorities: the student in the Great Hall started to sing "La Marseillaise". CSA organized a students' strike at Rome University on January 29th, against the decree of the Dean and of the Ministry for National Defense of November, 1943, which excluded from the exams the students who did not respond to the call to arms of the fascist Republic.
The day of the strike, in San Pietro in Vincoli, at the Engineering Faculty of the University, Ferdinando Agnini and Orlando Orlandi Posti took part in the armed picket, which forced at gunpoint the Tax Police agents who were on guard duty to open the gates, which had been barred, and cut phone cables off. As the police burst in, 600 demonstrators managed to escape, taking shelter in Colle Oppio, but some of the students who managed to flee were anyway identified by police and fascist spies. A large group of students of Dante Alighieri secondary school on humanities, led by Carlo Lizzani, Massimo Gizzio and Vincenzo Lapiccirella, carried out a demonstration in piazza della Libertà. A fascist gang shot the students, hitting the eighteen year old Massimo Gizzio, who died, after a three-days agony in Santo Spirito Hospital. Since 1949 a plaque remembers him in via Federico Cesi, where he was murdered. Gizzio had been sentenced the previous year for anti-fascist activities by the Fascist Special Court.
In mid-February 1944, ARSI merged into the Unione Studenti Italiani (Italian Students Union), joined by all the anti-fascist parties. The reasons were published March 26
th, 1944 in the journal "La Nostra Lotta".

The busts of anti-fascists at Montesacro and Val Melaina
The acts of war and sabotage against the nazis roused their reaction. The partisans of Montesacro had been planning attacks to Rome-Florence railway at Batteria Nomentana and to a fuel depot on the left bank of the river, but in the space of two months, the nazi busts reduced drastically their ranks and thwarted their plans. Lacking the collaboration of the neighborhood's people, which were instead definitely hostile, the Gestapo could arrests many patriots thanks to infiltrators, who received from 2 to 12 thousand liras for every partisan denounced. Among the spies were Franco Sabelli, Federico Scarpato, nicknamed by the Nazis "Fritz", and Armando Testorio, which in via Tasso prison was nicknamed "the soldier" because he used to wear a uniform. Testorio was the only one of the three who lived in the neighborhood, since he was infiltrated in Val Melaina after San Lorenzo bombing, after which he was evacuated. The moral value of the spies comes out from the many testimonies of their victims and of their dear ones, relating of money extortion in exchange for favours, which were never granted, of unneeded beats and housebreakings in the flats which were left empty, using the keys stolen to the prisoners. Testorio and Sabelli were arrested after the Liberation in Tivoli, while arguing over the sharing out of the reward they got for denouncing the partisans, and were shot by the British on June 26
th, 1945 at Forte Bravetta. Scarpato was sentenced to death and shot in the same place on April 26th, 1945. Another spy, Aristide Balestra, is mentioned, but no further information is known about his fate.

On 9th December, 1943 Vito Artale was arrested, then the night of December 21s, 1943 the first big roundup started in Montesacro and Val Melaina: Italo Grimaldi had entrusted his butcher's boy a machine gun to be delivered to comrade Lucci, but maybe the boy was shadowed, and Lucci was arrested. Also the tip-off of a certain Luigi Guadagni was decisive. When, on December 20th, the fascists broke into Grimaldi shop, he tried in vain to destroy a list of contributions made by the members of the clandestine cell, to support Lucci's family. The list was used by the OVRA (fascist political police) for December 23rd roundup, that had as victims Riziero Fantini, with his sons Adolfo and Furio, Raffaele Riva, Filippo Rocchi, Antonio Feurra, Giovanni Andreozzi and Mario Menichetti, all "long-lasting" anti-fascists.
Riziero Fantini, Italo Grimaldi and Antonio Feurra, shot in Forte Bravetta on December 30
th 1943, were among the first victims of Roman resistance. The newspaper "Il Messaggero" of January 1st, 1944 reported the news this way: "Three executions for acts of violence against the German armed forces (...) The sentence was carried out yesterday". On December 28th, two days before Forte Bravetta shootings, in Reggio Emiilia firing ground the seven Cervi brothers, Gelindo, Antenore, Aldo, Ferdinando, Agostino, Ovidio and Ettore, had been shot (see my webpage about them).
Also Raffaele Riva and Giovanni Andreozzi were shot in Forte Bravetta, on January 31
st, 1944 along with eight other comrades, including Vittorio Mallozzi, "for preparing acts of sabotage against the German armed forces and for leading other attacks against public order of the city of Rome."
After the shootings of Forte Bravetta, the families of some of the victims, Riva, Grimaldi, Fantini and Feurra, with the help of the Resistance and some employees of Verano cemetery, managed to enter at night in the cemetery to exhume the bodies which were anonymously buried in mass graves, and so they were able to identify them by documents or clothes they were wearing. A few months after, the families of Fosse Ardeatine victims had to endure, openly, and with the help of a medical examiner, the same operation of identification, which thwarted the Nazis attempt to hide their crime.
On February 3
rd 1944 the nazi and the fascists carried out one more roundup under tip-off of the spy Armando Testorio, mainly targeting the new anti-fascists. The fascists blocked the accesses to the neighborhood up, but Orlando Orlandi Posti somehow became aware of the danger and ran through the quarter to alert, one by one, all the comrades he managed to reach. Thus many escaped the arrest: Ferdinando Agnini in via Monte Tomatico, Franco Caccamo in via Peralba, Roberto Croce in via delle Alpi Apuane, Emilio Palombo in viale Carnaro, Luciano Celli in via Montecristo, Ennio Petrignani in via Monte Bianco, which together with Orlandi Posti could evacuate the hidden weapons and ammunition.
Nicola Rainelli and Luciano Celli found refuge in Angeli Custodi Church, by the parish priest Father Fiorello Piersanti, who hid them on the roof of the church, while Paul Lauffer, hiding in Rainelli house, was beaten and arrested. Amorina Lombardi, in the same cottage, escaped the arrest posing as a doctor on a domiciliary visit. Posti Orlandi, after saving his comrades from the raid, made the mistake of passing by Piazza Sempione to greet Marcella, the girl he loved, and there he was arrested, as well as Renzo Piasco, Sara Caccamo and, on the next day, Antonio Pistonesi. Ferdinando Agnini was arrested twenty days after the raid: thinking that the storm had calmed down, he came back home, where he found the Nazis waiting for him.
After the roundups the group of surviving partisans split up, continuing the fight outside Rome: Rainelli went to Corchiano, in Viterbo area, others reached Mount Scalambra, in Ernici mountains, on the border between the provinces of Rome and Frosinone, where they fought until the Liberation, which took place in early June 1944. On April 14
th at Montesacro the GAP (Gruppi di Azione Patriottica, Communist partisans groups) executed a fascist spy. On May 1st, in order to celebrate the Labour Day, red flags were hoisted in many places of the city, among them, by Riccardo Antonelli, in Val Melaina, which also was known as "Stalingrad". In the same month of May, as told by Silverio Corvisieri, the Partisans of Bandiera Rossa seized healthcare material from a nazi depot in Monte Sacro and members of the Monte Sacro band of the same movement, which had been catched by the fascists of PAI (Italian Africa Police), were able to set themselves free asking and receiving relief from the bystanders.
The latest clashes took place in Piazza Sempione, against the German army in retreat, which had undermined the Tazio bridge, but failed to destroy it completely. In the raging battle for the bridge two American soldiers were killed.

The latest Resistance victim in Rome was the twelve year old Ugo Forno, who was killed June 5th, 1944, along with twenty-one Francesco Guidi while trying to prevent the Nazis to undermine the railway bridge on river Aniene, near Via Prati Fiscali, not far from Val Melaina and Montesacro. The Nazis had to desist from their sabotage, still they killed the two boys and seriously wounded three more. Ugo Forno, posthumously awarded with gold medal of civil merit, is remembered by the website www.ugoforno.it.
The Montesacro neighborhood cell "Ten Martyrs" that once belonged to Italian Communist Party was dedicated to the victims of the anti-fascist fight.
On 25 April 2015, the 70
th anniversary of the Liberation, the 3rd District of Rome Municipality, the 4th District Adult Disabled Unit, TUR (Trekking Urbano Romano), in collaboration with Circolo Culturale Montesacro, organized a walking route reaching the places linked to the Resistenza in Montesacro and Val Melaina, where excerpts were read from the book "I ribelli dell'oltre Aniene" ("The Rebels from the Over-Aniene") edited by Stefano Prosperi, Massimo Taborri, Antonio D'Ettorre and Piero De Gennaro of Circolo Culturale Montesacro. Also the Vincenzo Bellini Band of Montesacro and the Rifugio Casaletto took part. Moreover the Montesacro branch of ANPI (National Association of Italian Partisans), the ASL (Local Health Authority) Rome A and Latium Region joined the initiative.
On January 20
th, 2021 two more Stolpersteine were laid, after those for Funaro family, mentionned in one of the previous paragraphs. In via Monte Tomatico 1 a Stolperstein was laid in front of Ferdinando Agnini's house, while in via Monte Nevoso, 10, a Stolperstein was laid in front of Orlando Orlandi Posti's house.

Who the Resistenza martyrs in Montesacro were?
Ferdinando Agnini known as "Nando" (Catania, August 24th 1924 - Rome, March 24th 1944), (stolperstein) son of Gaetano and Giuseppina Longo; he bore the name of his grandfather, who took part in the Fasci Siciliani uprising (1889-1894), while his father was a journalist who had refused to take the fascist party card. Young Agnini was a second year medical student and, immediately after September 8th, 1943 armistice, devoted himself to organize in Rome university and high school antifascist students of Monte Sacro, in "a force capable of arousing in the Italian cultural tradition, steeped in skepticism and idealism, the forces needed to a resurgence of the individual and collective awareness". On 31st October of the same year he had founded the ARSI, Associazione rivoluzionaria studentesca italiana (Revolutionary Association of Italian Students), which in February 1944 will be merged into the Unione Studenti Italiani (Italian Student Union). As a leader of ARSI the young man started, with his comrades, to collect weapons and useful information in the fight against the nazis. Ferdinando Agnini was unanimously described as a very active young man, who left his house at dawn and returned after curfew to organize actions against the nazis and the fascists, in collaboration with groups of Communist patriots of the Fifth Zone, in order to keep the Resistenza fighters in touch between them. He also edited and printed the journal "La nostra lotta" ("Our Fight"). He was also a member of partisan Brigade Garibaldi.
Once escaped February 3
rd roundup, 1944, thanks to the warning spread by Orlando Orlandi Posti, the whole family remained in hiding, but then they returned home, in via Monte Tomatico, thinking that the storm had calmed down. On February 24th, 1944, the spies Testorio and Scarpato led the police to Agnini residence, where they found his mother and two brothers, and waited for Ferdinando to come back: the events remind somehow the ambush to Valerio Verbano, thirty-six years later, and in the same neighborhood of Montesacro. Once the fascist captured Agnini, they beat him in his house and then again at Montesacro police station, where a policeman, Salvatore Morello, pretended he was his friend and offered him to deliver a note from his father. In the note Ferdinando asked his father to warn his close friend of the danger. The following day even his father Gaetano was arrested and hauled to via Tasso jail, where he underwent torture. Ferdinando was dragged in the same prison, "at the disposal of Aussen-Kommando under a police investigation", where he was repeatedly tortured (twelve times in fifteen days) and then murdered at the Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 28 of the mausoleum.
After the Liberation, in the lobby of the municipal building which at the time hosted the classical lycée "Quinto Orazio Flacco", in Monte Sacro,
a plaque was affixed that reads: "In questa Aula - Pur in oscuri tempi di vivere servile - A forti e liberi sensi - Educò mente e cuore - Ferdinando Agnini - che alle Fosse Ardeatine il 24.3.1944 - Immolava - Vittima consapevole - La sua giovinezza all'umanità libera - Professori e studenti lo vollero qui ricordare" ("In this hall, even in dark days of servile life - Ferdinando Agnini educated his mind and heart to strong and free feelings - He sacrificed - as a conscious victim - his youth to free humanity - at the Fosse Ardeatine on March 24th 1944 - Professors and students wanted to commemorate him"). A street in Catania city center is dedicated to Ferdinando Agnini, as well as the municipal gymnasium of viale Adriatico, a former boarding school for female overseers of the fascist youth organization GIL (Gioventù Italiana del Littorio), which hs been dedicated to him on March 24th, 1985, in the 41st anniversary of Fosse Ardeatine massacre, as reported in the plaque affixed besides the entrance (see his data file on ANPI website) (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Orlando Orlandi Posti, known as "Lallo" (Rome, March 14th 1926 - March 24th 1944) (stolperstein) he was from Rome, from a family of Umbrian origin, from Piegaro (Perugia), son of Luigi, a clerk, and of Matilde Servoli. He was a student of teaching high school "Giosué Carducci", but in 1938 the death of his father, who had cancer, left his family in serious financial straits and Orlando abandoned his studies and started to work as an extra in Cinecittà studios. He was a leader of ARSI, together with Ferdinando Agnini, who lived a few steps away from his house. He took part in the fight against the fascists in Pietralata and Porta San Paolo with an old musket. On February 3rd, 1944, he managed to save his comrades from a nazi raid in the neighborhood. Then he took care to drop in to his house, in 14, via Monte Nevoso, in order to reassure his mother, and then at 11:30 he tried to greet the girl he loved, Marcella, the daughter of Achille Bonelli, the owner of the bar Bonelli in Piazza Sempione (today "Angolo Russo", formerly "Zio d'America"). Outside the bar he found a squad of fascists and nazis in a car, waiting for him, who caught him and imposed him a long wait, until 2:00 PM, in the car in front of the bar, perhaps in the hope of catching other antifascists. During his wait his mother reached him, and in vain she tried to talk with him, then Marcella got there, and could give him a nod. He was then brought to via Tasso jail, in cell no. 5, where he spent his eighteenth birthday "at the disposal of Aussen-Kommando under a police investigation". On March 24th, he was murdered at the Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 108 of the mausoleum.
Orlando was awarded of the silver medal for military valour for sacrifying "his noble life which he had devoted to the cause of freedom".
The small notes he wrote to his mother and to Marcella, written in via Tasso with scraps of pencil lead, sent by his mother concealed in the shirt collars, and brought out the same way, were published in 2004 by Donzelli Editore with the title: "Roma '44 - le lettere dal carcere di via Tasso di un martire delle Fosse Ardeatine" ("Rome 1944 - letters from via Tasso jail by a martyr of the Fosse Ardeatine") edited by Loretta Veri with an introduction by Alessandro Portelli. In 2009 Mondadori published Edgarda Ferri book "Uno dei tanti: Orlando Orlandi Posti ucciso alle Fosse Ardeatine. Una storia mai raccontata"
("One of the many: Orlando Orlandi Posti killed at the Fosse Ardeatine. An untold story." The Montesacro-based punk group "Cannatrix" published the comics tale "Orlando uno dei tanti - una storia di Montesacro" ("Orlando One of the Many: - A Montesacro story" with drawings by the cartoonist Stefano Artibani, born and raised in Montesacro (see his data file on ANPI website) (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Vito Artale, (Palermo, March 3rd 1883 - Rome, March 24th 1944), son of the late Antonino and of Maria Anna Amodei, he lived in via della Cisa, 9. He was a Lieutenant General of the Technical service of artillery, Gold Medal of Military Valor in memory. He took part as an artilleryman in the war of Libya (1911-12) and in the First World War with the rank of captain, he was later promoted to major and subsequently he was military attaché at the Italian Embassy in Berlin. Since 1929 he was deputy director of Terni weapons factory and then director, in Rome, of the Laboratory of optical glass of the Army, which under his leadership became the most important Italian plant for the production of optical glasses.
After 8
th September 1943 armistice, Vito joined the Resistenza, and was in contact with the clandestine military front of Colonel Montezemolo; he organized sabotage in the military establishments under his command, subtracting to the nazi occupants and putting in a safe place, materials of invaluable military importance and, when this was not possible, making the equipment unusable, in order to avoid it was brought to Germany. Futhermore he refused to give the Germans the names and addresses of the factory workers, to whom he paid a salary to prevent them being forced to work for the Germans. Artale was put in retirement, but continued the fight by subtracting machinery, accessories and measuring instruments from a barracks in Cecchignola, Rome, controlled by the German police, and hiding them in a rented warehouse. In another clandestine space he hid the instruments taken from the military establishments in Via Marsala. Artale was arrested by the Gestapo nazi police on December 9th, 1943, at via Marsala, 102, in the military establishments he managed, while trying to convince the workers hired by the Nazi-fascists not to dismantle the machinery and electric furnaces of the glassworks. He was imprisoned in Via Tasso jail, where he was often tortured, although he was seriously ill, until he was murdered at the Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 64 of the mausoleum. (see his data file on ANPI website) (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Riziero Fantini, (Coppito, L'Aquila, April 6th, 1892 - Rome, December 30th, 1943) son of Adolfo and Maria Apollonia Ciotti, was an anarchist worker. He was married with Marziana Taggi, and the couple had four children Adolfo, Furio, Romano and Polimnia. Riziero came from a very poor family, with socialist tradition, his father worked in a brick kiln. He went to primary school until the third form, the highest grade he could attend in his village. When he was 15 years he founded the circle of PSI (Italian Socialist Party) of his native village. In 1910 Fantini dodged conscription and emigrated to the United States, where he worked as a labourer, and attended evening school; he joined the anarchist movement, meeting Nicola Sacco e Bartolomeo Vanzetti, and writing articles for the Italian immigrants' newspaper "La Scintilla" ("The Spark"), which he signed "Jack" as a tribute to Jack London, which he admired very much. He also had an exchange of mail with Nicola Sacco, and the letters were found by his children and published after the war. Together with other comrades, he traveled extensively on foot in Central America and reached Ecuador to promote there anarchist ideas. In 1921 Riziero was back in USA, from where he was expelled, and came back in Italy, spurred by the news of the insurrections that broke out at the end of the war; he settled in the Marche, where he formed a committee in favor of Sacco and Vanzetti, also publishing articles on the anarchist journal Umanità Nova, and for this reason the police kept a tab on him. He also wrote articles on the journals "La Frusta" and "Libero accordo".
At the advent of fascism, Fantini moved to Rome, where he could more easily evade controls. He built himself a little house at 7, Via Calimno, near piazzale Jonio. In Rome he was also a friend of the anarchist leader Errico Malatesta.On August 5
th 1922 he was arrested in Montesacro by the Carabinieri police during an extended search for weapons and ammunitions, after the general strike of August 1st, called by the Alleanza del Lavoro (Alliance of Work) in order to protest against the blackshirts militia's brutality and trying to hinder the taking of power by the fascism.
The Rome's local news of Il Corriere della Sera newspaper of August 6
th, 1922, so described the roundup: <<Following the disturbance that occurred during the strike of the last few days, the police authorities, in agreement with the Carabinieri, have ordered a thorough search in "Aniene Garden City" neighborhood, where numerous Communists and Anarchists lurk. This morning at 3:00 at Porta Pia the gathering of 200 carabinieri armed with muskets took place. The policemen got on their trucks and at dawn burst into Garden City center [...] they minutely searched the shacks and hovels where the construction workers live. The sweep led to the arrest of 12 dangerous subversives, including a well-known anarchist and a Russian Bolshevik [...] Revolvers, ammunition and knives have been found>>. (Gentili, 2009)

In 1940 Riziero joined the Italian Communist Party in Montesacro-Val Melaina, becoming responsible for an undercover cell. After the armistice, organized the antifascist resistance with other anti-fascist workers and kept meetings in his house. On 21st December 1943 he was arrested in his house by the SS with two of his four children (Adolfo and Furio) and with Mario Menichetti. Fantini was locked up in the third row of Regina Coeli jail in Rome.
During the imprisonment of her husband and sons, Marziana Taggi kept on supporting the Resistenza, carrying leaflets, weapons and bombs in her shopping bag. Marziana communicated with her jailed family members with small notes, hidden inside the rigatoni pasta tubes, which she brought them in jail.
In the prison Riziero was repeatedly tortured and underwent a summary trial, after which he was shot in Forte Bravetta on December 30
th, 1943, together with his comrades Italo Grimaldi and Antonio Feurra, all charged with anti-German activities. Riziero refused the last rites, since he was an atheist, and the prison chaplain gave Fantini's wife her husband's Longines watch, all broken from the beatings he got and a farewell note saying: "Dear, my last thought is for you. I die with your name and our sons' names on my lips. I wish you all the best. Yours Riziero." (see his data file on ANPI website)

Raffaele Riva (Sant'Agata Bolognese, Bologna, December 29th, 1896 - Rome, January 31st, 1944), son of Alfredo and Carolina Parmigiani. He was a Communist Catholic mason, married with Maria Luigia Nepoti, with two children, Walter e Leda. Veteran of the First World War, he was taken prisoner and confined in the very harsh Sigmundsherberg prison camp, in Austria. At the advent of fascism he was forced to leave his town to escape fascist persecutions, so he moved with his family to Garfagnana for one year and then to Rome, Montesacro, where many immigrants from Emilia dwelt. Even in Rome Riva was targeted by the police, who imposed him the house arrest, in 7, via Cervino. There he lived with his family in a small house built in the garden of the villa of colonel Ottalevi, who was shot by the nazis on September 10th 1943 on the Greek island of Lefkada, having refused to surrender. In spite of being arrested, Riva continued his clandestine political activity and, after September 8th, 1943 armistice, he was one of the Resistenza organizers in the neighborhood, taking part in boycotts, gathering weapons for the partisan bands, releasing leaflets against the Nazis. Riva was arrested at his home during December 21st, 1944 roundup, then dragged to via Tasso and locked up in the third row of Regina Coeli jail in Rome, in cell no. 346. His family members could communicate with him shouting from Gianicolo, the hill that overlooks the jail, following the ancient Roman tradition. After a summary trial, he was sentenced to death by a Nazi military court for anti-German activities and shot by the battlements of Forte Bravetta, together with Giovanni Andreozzi and other eight anti-fascists. Riva walked quietly to execution after refusing the blindfold and after smoking his last cigarette. Before falling, he shouted: "Viva l'Italia libera!" ("Hooray for Italy free!") (see his data file on ANPI website)

Aldo Banzi (Rome, January 23rd, 1921 - March 24th, 1944) son of the late Vincenzo and of Elisa Manzatti, surveyor, employee and militant of Movimento Comunista d'Italia - Bandiera Rossa, (Communist Movement of Italy - Red Flag), a movement dissident from Italian Communist Party. He was resident at Via Mirandola 30, near Roma Tuscolana railway station. He was enlisted in August 1940 as an employee of the Ministry of the Navy with the rank of 2nd Head paymaster, y then he was recognized as 3rd degree disabled by the Military High Commission of Celio Hospital. He was arrested in Rome by the nazi SS on March 6th, 1944, imprisoned in via Tasso jail "at the disposal of Aussen-Kommando under a police investigation", and finally murdered at Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 119 of the mausoleum. A road in Rome's neighborhood of Tor de Cenci was dedicated to him (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Renzo Piasco (Rome, June 13th, 1925 - March 24th, 1944), born in Trastevere, in the city center, but moved to via Val Melaina, 34; then in via Scarpanto, 45. He was son of Paolo, a Communist taxi driver who was confined for political reasons in Ustica island and then into hiding, and of Maria (Annita) Pennazzi. He was a railway worker, an assistant engine driver, fired for refusing to move to Northern Italy to work for the fascist republic. He was also a dodger to the fascist republic conscription. Militant of Movimento Comunista d'Italia - Bandiera Rossa (Communist Movement of Italy - Red Flag), a movement dissident from Italian Communist Party, he was repeatedly arrested for carrying out anti-fascist activity in Montesacro. Renzo fought on 10th September, 1943 at Porta San Paolo and on February 3rd the spy Armando Testorio came to his house and drew him outside, until he was arrested by the nazi SS in piazza Sempione while he carried a rucksack full of propaganda leaflets and weapons. He was dragged to via Tasso jail, "at the disposal of Aussen-Kommando under a police investigation", tortured and in the end murdered at the Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 115 of the mausoleum (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Antonio Pistonesi known as Giacomo (Rome, February 9th, 1925 - March 24th, 1944), son of Antonio and Caterina Falaschetti, he was a waiter and worker in a mill. his name had to be Giacomo, in honour of the Antifascist leader Giacomo Matteotti, murdered by the fascists few months before his birth, but the registry officer forced his father to register his son with a different name. He was a militant of the Italian Communist Party of Val Melaina, he fought on 10th September, 1943 on Salaria road and at Prati Fiscali. On February 4th, 1944 the spy Scarpato led the nazis to his house, but he wasn't there, so his sister Giulia was taken as a hostage and dragged under threat in the suburb's streets, calling Giacomo aloud, in order to drive him to give himself up, but it didn't happen. The infiltrator Testorio managed to hook him and, promising to entrust him to the Resistenza to take shelter in Mentana, a town near Rome, gave him an appointment at 11:00 am in largo Brancaccio, but he went there with the nazis, who hauled Giacomo to via Tasso jail, in cell no. 3, "at the disposal of Aussen-Kommando under police investigation", while the spy Testorio kept on double-crossing, reassuring Pistonesi family. Giacomo came out from the jail just to be murdered at the Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 43 of the mausoleum. (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Filippo Rocchi (Fara Sabina, Rieti, February 13th, 1909 - Rome , March 24th, 1944) son of the late Domenico and Elvira Bernardini, retailer (or labourer?), member of PCI, Italian Communist Party, and of CLN, Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee), he lived in 25, via delle Cave Fiscali, but he was resident in Via Principe di Piemonte 107 (today via Giolitti, beside Termini Railway Station). He was a war wounded, and he was discharged as corporal. He was arrested for joining a communist gangs and possession of weapons in the December 21st, 1943 roundup, at 7:30 AM, by the German SS and by the PAI (Police of Italian Africa), led by Federico Scarpato, who savagely beaten him, breaking him an arm and causing him kidney injuries. He was detained in Via Tasso and then at Regina Coeli "at the disposal of the German Military Tribunal - awaiting trial" and murdered at Fosse Ardeatine, where he is buried in tomb No. 135 of the mausoleum (see his record from Fosse Ardeatine Mausoleum website).

Italo Grimaldi (Budrio, Bologna, September 5th, 1899 - Rome, December 30th, 1943), son of Vincenzo and Rosa Pezzoli, father of Amneris. He was a militant of the Italian Communist Party of Montesacro-Val Melaina. He lived in 7, piazza Matese, a few steps away from Agnini, Orlandi Posti and Riva. He had a butcher's shop in piazza Sempione (according to other sources in via Gargano). He was already reported in 1934 by the Police because in his butchery: "he would at lenght entertain with political talks with some of his acquaintances. These talks would be marked by the clearest anti-fascism". Italo is also remembered, together with Antonio Righi and Francesco Celluprica, by a plaque placed in the former Testaccio Slaughterhouse, on 7 October 7th, 1945 by workmates to remember the slaughterhouse employees who died during the war. Italo was arrested on December 20th, 1943 at 11:00 AM in his shop, by a SS patrol, flanked by three fascists, including Federico Scarpato, who later on arrested also his brother Guido and Vittorio Mallozzi, who find himself there. During the house search Scarpato stole several things, including a whole pig, legally owned and 400,000 liras in cash. Italo Grimaldi was then tortured at lenght in the third row of Regina Coeli jail and shot at Forte Bravetta for anti-German activities.

Antonio Feurra (Cagliari, September 22, 1893 - Rome, December 30th, 1943) son of the late Salvatore, coming from Seneghe (Oristano, Sardinia), married with Lavinia Angelucci, greengrocer (known as "er patataro" meaning "potato monger") he lived in 5, viale Gottardo and had a stall in the nearby Montesacro district market. He was a militant of the Italian Communist Party of Montesacro-Val Melaina, arrested on the morning of December 21st, 1943 by a SS patrol, directed by Federico Scarpato, who beaten him savagely and threatened his wife to arrest her. He was shot at Forte Bravetta for anti-German activities.

Giovanni Andreozzi (Rome, August 2nd 1912 - January 31st, 1944), member of CLN, Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (National Liberation Committee), Communist Catholic, shot at Forte Bravetta for anti-German activities, together with Raffaele Riva and other eight anti-fascists.

Paul Leo Lauffer (or Lauffner?) (Koenigsberg, April 18th, 1902 - Rome, March, 7th, 1944) son of Paul and Natalia Meyer, German dentist and militant of Partito d'Azione (Action Party), he escaped from Pomerania and took shelter by the Rainelli family, at 8, via Monte Argentario, in order to escape anti-Jewish persecution. He was captured in February 3rd, 1944 roundup and, even though was tortured, he didn't disclose the names of his comrades nor revealed the weapon depot in the garden of Rainelli house. In the end he was shot for anti-German activity in Forte Bravetta, together with nine other anti-fascists, Giorgio Labò, Antonio Bussi, Concetto Fioravanti, Vincenzo Gentile, Francesco Lipartiti, Antonio Nardi, Mario Negelli and Augusto Pasini. The mass shooting was a retaliation for the attack of March 5th by theTorpignattara partisans to the fascist headquarters of Quarticciolo, during which a Nazi soldier was killed.

Amilcare Baldoni (Vacone, Rieti, 1883 - 12 April 1944) son of the late Federico, anarchist and cobbler (or maybe a clerk), was in the police records since 1907; then he emigrated to France until he was expelled in 1936 for the sanctions against Italy's invasion of Ethiopia; then he settled in Rome's suburb of Tufello, in the so-called "Frenchmen houses". It is unclear how and when he was killed, according to some sources he might be an unidentified victim of the Fosse Ardeatine massacre. According to others he was arrested at Vacone, in Sabina area, where he had moved to fight the nazis, by the 20th SS Polizei Regiment, in the framework of operation "Osterei" in the provinces of Terni and Rieti. The nazis, together with members of the national guard of the fascist republic, arrested several people thanks to tip offs, and Baldoni, defined as the chief of the local partisans, would have been shot together with Tax Police cadet non-commissioned officer Beniamino Minicucci at Vacone. A plaque in Poggio Mirteto (Rieti) reports Amilcare Baldoni and Beniamino Minicucci as victims of the nazi and fascist in the area of mount Tancia.
Valerio Gentili
(2010, pag. 16), describes the founding in Roma, autumn 1914, of the city board of "Fascio rivoluzionario d'azione", a left wing coalition supporting the participation of Italy to World War I. The board included, representing Revolutionary Socialists, a man named Amilcare Baldoni, who was maybe the same person described in this paragraph. The same author (2010) describes two meetings held in 1919 at Amilcare Baldoni house, the first on July 7, in which Anarchists, Arditi (former storm troopers) and Republicans talked about a possible insurrection in response to a hypothetical nationalist coup (pag. 67), and another on July 16, in order to organize support actions for the comrades arrested in a sequence of police raids (pag. 73).

This page includes photos of only eleven of the fourteen Resistenza martyrs of Montesacro and Val Melaina. If anyone can provide me photos of the
three martyrs not portrayed here (Italo Grimaldi, Giovanni Andreozzi and Amilcare Baldoni), in order to publish them, please write to
andgad@alice.it.

Thanks Pierpaolo Pompili for Paul Lauffer's picture

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
AA.VV. (1978) Quaderni della Resistenza laziale, n.8. Regione Lazio, Stilgraf, Roma.
BRACCI TORSI Bianca (2002) Un episodio poco noto della Resistenza romana I "Caimani del bell'orizzonte". Liberazione - 25-04-2002
link
CAPPONI Carla (2000) Con cuore di donna. Il Saggiatore, Milano.
image
CAZZULLO Aldo (2015) Possa il mio sangue servire. Rizzoli, Milano.
CERVI Alcide (2010) I miei sette figli. Einaudi, Torino.
CIRCOLO CULTURALE MONTESACRO (2014) I ribelli dell'oltre Aniene. Edizioni Chillemi, Roma.
CORVISIERI Silverio (2005) Bandiera rossa nella resistenza romana. Odradek, Roma.
D'AGUANNO Claudio (2004) Un magma resistente.
link
FENOGLIO Beppe (1985) Primavera di bellezza. Einaudi,Torino.
FERRI Edgarda (2009) Uno dei tanti: Orlando Orlandi Posti ucciso alle Fosse Ardeatine. Una storia mai raccontata. Mondadori, Milano.
GENTILI Valerio (2009) La legione romana degli Arditi del Popolo. Purple Press, Roma.
GENTILI Valerio (2010) Roma combattente. Dal "biennio rosso" agli Arditi del Popolo. Castelvecchi, Roma.
GHIANDONI Laura (2020) 1 febbraio 1944, muore Massimo Gizzio, eroe della Resistenza. Romah24 - Flamino-Parioli, February 1st, 2020
link
GIAMMARIA Gioacchino (1978) Quaderni della Resistenza laziale. 8 - Dati sulla Resistenza in Ciociaria. Regione Lazio, Roma.
GRELLA Pasquale (1987) Appunti per la storia del movimento anarchico romano dalle origini al 1946. De Vittoria, Roma
.
LIPAROTO Andrea (2009) “Uno dietro l’altro andavano a morire contro il terrapieno”. Patria Indipendente, 25 ottobre 2009: 7-12.
link
ORLANDI POSTI Orlando (2004) Roma '44. Le lettere dal carcere di via Tasso di un martire delle Fosse Ardeatine. Donzelli, Roma.
OSSICINI Adriano (1999) Un'isola sul Tevere. Editori Riuniti, Roma.
OSTI GUERRAZZI Amedeo (2015) Episodio di Forte Bravetta - 7 marzo 1944. Atlante delle Stragi Naziste e Fasciste in Italia.
link
PAVIA Aldo (2013) Resistenza a Roma. Una cronologia.
link
PI.MAR. (2015) La storia dimenticata del partigiano Antonio Feurra. La Nuova Sardegna, May 30
th, 2015 link.
POMPEO Augusto (edited by) (2000) Forte Bravetta 1932-1945 - Storie Memorie Territorio. Comune di Roma XVI Circoscrizione, Anpi, Provincia di Roma.
PORTELLI Alessandro (2012) L'ordine è già stato eseguito. Feltrinelli, Milano.
ROSSI Tommaso (2016) Episodio di Vacone 12.04.1944. Atlante delle Stragi Naziste e Fasciste in Italia.
link
SPIZZICHINO Giancarlo (2012) La deportazione a Roma. in "Le leggi razziali e la persecuzione degli ebrei a Roma, 1938-1945". Edited by Silvia Haia Antonucci, Pierina Ferrara. Marco Folin, Manola Ida Venzo. MuMeLoc, Cerreto Guidi, Archivio Storico della Comunità Ebraica di Roma.
link
TABORRI Massimo (2001) Montesacro e Valmelaina nei 9 mesi della occupazione nazista di Roma. Workshop "La memoria presente", Il Manifesto, Circolo Culturale Montesacro, March 8
th-29th 2001 link
TROISIO Armando (2014) Roma sotto il terrore nazista. Castelvecchi, Roma

VISITED WEBSITES:
http://www.sotziu.it/historia/historia-borghesi-recensione-circolo-gl-sassari%281%29.htm.
http://www.anpi.it/donne-e-uomini/.
http://www.romamontesacro.it/txt%5C%5Coccupazione.txt
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eccidio_di_Pietralata
https://www.rerumromanarum.com/2018/06/targa-in-memoria-di-italo-grimaldi.html
http://parridigit.istitutoparri.eu/fondi.aspx?key=dettaglio&fondo=7&Q4=452&from=ricerca&rec_id=848&cp=0
Biographies of the Roman Resistenza http://www.storiaxxisecolo.it/biografieroma/biografierma.htm
Gianni Corbi biography: http://www.storiaxxisecolo.it/antifascismo/biografie%20antifascisti66.html.
Facebook page on Ferdinando Agnini
link currently (January 21st, 2019) not available
Montesacro, 4 pietre d'inciampo per ricordare le deportazioni nazifasciste
http://montesacro.romatoday.it/citta-giardino/montesacro-pietre-inciampo-via-maiella.html

I apologize for any error in English translation: if you want to communicate
with me for corrections and/or comments, email me at:
andgad@tiscali.it.
I also apologize for any possible (and likely) error in the stories and data on this page.
For any clarifications or corrections also email me at the
same address.

page created: June 28th 2015 and last updated: May 26th, 2021